How there live wards in orphanages of Germany?
In Germany number of orphanages, boarding schools and shelters are very small. I will tell about experience of orphanage of the city of Bonn. Founded in 1960, only in this city, it is financed now by municipal authorities, a commune. At the same time, finance of the territorial subject of the federation, and also a donation of individuals and the organizations in the form of money, tickets (to theater, at cinema, in sports clubs, a zoo), school writing-materials and other come.
It is a little about stories of this orphanage. It was created by rich people for orphans and “ street children “. The board of trustees included 5 people who made the will. On it every year a certain sum passes to the account of each of 50 wards. In spite of the fact that now orphanage municipal, the will has the force.
Besides, changed the direction of the help. If before the child it was necessary to feed, provide the warm room and clean clothes, then now in modern German society individual education of each ward according to requirements of time is required. It needs support and psychological assistance.
In 80 - e years of the 20th century the new building of orphanage, not in the downtown, and on its suburbs, near the wood was built. At the same time here all wooden that is especially appreciated in Germany according to one of the German methods of education where there should not be nothing metal. According to the deputy director, not all orphanages are in such good shape.
The children`s home has several departments and cases. He reminds pass - hotel or the campus. So, it shares on 4 “ department “.
The first, the hostel for pupils. As a rule, till 16 - 18 years. Department for children, a family and youth of the city allocates for the group consisting of 10 people and the tutor, 210 euros a week. The group distributes itself finance on purchase of products, and what remains, can spend for themselves.
The second, housing and educational case, - for those who live with parents at home, but during quarrels or crises comes and temporarily remains. Can be and other situation, parents do not want to raise the children or they have no time therefore they send the children voluntarily. The employee of the house reported that there are children and wealthy prominent people, including politicians and businessmen.
Confirmation to that serves that fact that if department for youth recognizes that the family according to its income is able to afford to allocate funds for the child from own budget, it does not allocate funds to children`s home for this pupil. I.e. if the child from socially - a dysfunctional family or the orphan (1%), then the city can pay its stay in children`s home for 100%. In other cases parents have to pay 130 euros a day.
Educational work is carried out not only with children, but also their families. Parents can come and tell about the problems. They know that they will get advice and the help of competent experts here.
The third, “ intensive department “ for those who experienced crisis and appeared in a difficult life situation, underwent rape, beating and other, children are refugees, and those who are in psychological crisis, children who got to a foster home, but could remain in it for various reasons. Here most of all children and groups.
Pupils of all children`s home very carefully also show consideration for those who live in this group. To it children special approach as it children and teenagers very emotional, hyperactive, aggressive, endured by them remained still in memory is necessary. In this group there are those who saw own eyes as they kill their parents in the war in Africa, and also in other hot spots.
How children from such countries get to Germany? Relatives or friends of the family, where parents, and at times and parents died, on the last money buy a plane ticket one way - Germany, and send the child. Germany cannot find any documents, find out the return address and other, and then such children get to children`s home. For many parents it is the only chance to rescue their child and to provide the better future, than there from where he is. In this regard there is a lot of information material in magazines, newspapers, on television about a distress of children in the countries “ third world “ and about need to give them help. This sensitive issue is actively discussed by the German authorities.
The fourth department, for children and teenagers - disabled people. By estimates of the German experts, the principle of work in Germany with mentally retarded children and other mental deviations significantly differs from the American methods and forms. The German range is wider and various. In particular, each child has a special furniture, a bathtub, all necessary hygienic means. The sports equipment and rooms allow to carry out directly in orphanage remedial gymnastics and to conduct necessary occupations. Children - disabled people with all healthy children on an equal basis attend the school, classes mixed. Children - disabled people feel absolutely “ normal “ go to all actions and nobody not in restrains them.
All children attend school. Daily school bus brings children to school and brings back. By the way, the driver of this bus - regular soldiers.
All in this house more than 220 people. In each group 12 - 15 children though it is calculated that there has to be no more than 8 - 10. Boys and girls in one group. As personnel on one group 4 employees and 1 probationer. Work on changes: with 6 to 14, with 14 to 20, from 20 to 6 o`clock, including holidays and the days off. Besides, everyone can come and give help to children.
We will notice that in Germany it is very widespread voluntarily and without remuneration to do practical training in the social sphere. For the German society - it as a debt to citizens of the country. Besides, it is also prestigious. As local citizens, to such kind people tell the special relation. Interestingly and that a percentage ratio between man`s and a female of probationers identical.
Every day pupils of orphanage together with tutors paint to themselves a daily routine on hours. Therefore in an office at the tutor the schedule of each child irrespective of age on hours for a week always hangs. He knows precisely where the ward with whom he that does.
The permanent staff of children`s home of Bonn has diplomas of social teachers, tutors, the nurse, psychologists. They are highly esteemed in society as care for children and disabled people. As employees " speak; “ it is a lot of discrimination in relation to disabled people “ “ and for our salary a family you will not support “. Though actually, to the European measures, the salary very much even high and privileges is more: holiday big - 30 days, 13 - I am a salary, days off for New Year`s holidays.
Each pupil of orphanage has the room which he arranges and “ paints “ in literal sense at discretion. As each pupil receives money from the state, he can dispose of part. Therefore many have the TV, the tape recorder. If the pupil studies well, then, having got a grant, he can buy not only clothes, wall-paper and curtains, but also the TV. It is interesting that the senior pupils can buy products together and cook food. On each floor the kitchen with tables, chairs, house utensils is specially constructed. By the way, if they do not want to have dinner in kitchen, can pass in “ drawing room “ or a restroom where there is a TV, a cozy sofa with chairs. Cleaning of rooms and kitchen is carried out independently. Purity and an order reigns in children`s home.
All who are more senior than 14 years can leave to the city and go shopping, at cinema, to friends and even on discos. The only thing governed, they have to be in the room not later than 22 o`clock in the evening.
Strikes the fact that, despite national antismoking, antialcoholic and anti-narcotic programs and municipal campaigns in Germany, in orphanage it is officially allowed to drink beer and wine from 16 years in the room, and vodka and whisky - from 18 years.
The management applies humane measures of education: it is authorized to carry out and to cheerfully celebrate holidays with friends, to invite acquaintances, however it is necessary to inform. In a word, pupils feel really as in normal families as houses.
How there can long be children and teenagers in orphanage? According to tutors, at most two years. After that many teenagers move to apartments. They remove them, the city continues by it to help. At first they are under supervision, and then as necessary consultations and so forth are provided to them. Many come back to families since. not only social workers of the city, but also specialists of orphanage work with such families. It is known that such families also are under supervision and parents know that children can also declare the rights and file a lawsuit against them. Some remain for long time, and later the city provides them other forms and conditions of accommodation.
Besides, adaptation takes place in society easily, many establish families (the majority lives a civil marriage), find work, travel.
Thus if in Russia the problem of inclusion in society is particularly acute for graduates of orphanages, they experience difficulties in professional self-determination, marriage, in establishment of the professional and friendly relations, then in Germany new forms of educational institutions will be organized and social protection provides the organization of the help to children and teenagers after an exit from orphanage.
In more detail see Kalinkin M. Yu. How there live wards in orphanages of Germany? (on the example of children`s home of Bonn). / / Orphanage. January - March, 2007. No. 1 (22). Page 22.