Whether could be “ Stolypin reforms “ without “ Stolypin " ties;?
the Identity of Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin who was born 145 years ago on April 14, 1862, never was unambiguous. In the period of cruel social shocks of the beginning of the XX century it continually went on a razor edge, constantly risking not only the life, but also those who existed to it most closer. Whether this risk was justified? Whom he was during lifetime: angry demon of the Russian Empire or engine of history? Whether those draconian methods to which he resorted and what made it such rigid were necessary? Questions, questions …
Let`s together try to look on them for answers.
Lermontov died? It revived in the second cousin … Today difficultly to believe
in it, but Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin and Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov who died 21 year prior to the birth of the future Russian the prime minister - the minister, were second cousins. The matter is that Pyotr Arkadyevich`s grandfather, Dmitry Aleksandrovich Stolypin, and the grandmother of the poet, Elizabeth Alekseevna Stolypina, - the native brother and the sister. Means, the reformer and the poet consisted in close relationship.
Whether the prime minister - the minister knew about it? Out of any doubts. Moreover, he very much was proud of the great relative, and even swore the childhood that will leave the mark in the history of Russia. It turned out, but with what titanic efforts with what blood!
Of course, it was far easier for Stolypin to break through to top of the Russian history, than the representative of an impoverished noble sort Lermontov. It is necessary to tell that the father is a prime minister - the minister, Arkady Alekseevich Stolypin, was not the last person at court. The general - the aide-de-camp, the participant of the Crimean war, the Sevastopol hero, L. N. Tolstoy`s friend, he in at one time was a nakazny ataman of the Ural Cossack army. Stolypin`s efforts - the senior this Yaitsky (Ural) town took almost European form: paved streets, stone houses. And the people loved the “ father “ having christened “ Peter the Great of the Ural Cossacks “.
In a word, Arkady Alekseevich did everything possible not to repeat destiny of the brother - the general - the lieutenant Nikolay Stolypin who is broken off by crowd during revolt in Sevastopol.
By the way, Arkady Stolypin was very amicable with Lev Nikolaevich Tolstoy, to the death they called each other on “ you “ and did not even suspect that younger Stolypin should affect so brightly destiny of Russia the beginning of the XX century. However, the teacher of natural sciences of Sankt - the St. Petersburg university Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev who to the future the prime minister - to the minister gave lectures in due time also did not guess it. But I want to note the main thing - character of the future the prime minister - the minister was shaped in very progressive environment where to be allocated, it was necessary to have remarkable talent. And who knows, maybe, this gene was both at Lermontov, and at Stolypin …
A murder for a murder?
the Second stage of formation fell on the beginning of the century when in the beginning in 1902 Stolypin was appointed in Grodno the governor. And since February, 1903 it was transferred to the Saratov province. And again governor. And here passed final “ facet “ character. The matter is that the young governor appeared between two fires. On the one hand, the Saratov province was one of the centers of the Russian revolutionary underground, and, naturally, it appeared in the thick of revolutionary events of 1905 - 1907. With another - in Saratov positions right, reactionary, forces were very strong. Here it was also necessary to get out.
Stolypin was for aggressive revolutionaries very tempting bait - on the governor several attempts were carried out: shot at it, threw bombs, terrorists in the anonymous letter threatened to poison the younger child Stolypin - the three-year-old son Arkady. And it pushed Pyotr Arkadyevich quite democratic at that time to the most rigid countermeasures too - troops never did nothing. And repulse to revolutionaries was every time as today it is fashionable to be expressed, adequate. Irreconcilability of the young governor was noted also by the sovereign - the emperor - Stolypin was appointed the Minister of Internal Affairs. But it only urged forward terrorists.
What was scope of terror, it is possible to judge only by one fact of attempt which happened already in St. Petersburg, on Stolypin`s dacha, on the Pharmaceutical island. Powerful explosion ruined a half of giving. Only the list of the killed directly at explosion totaled 24 persons. Pyotr Arkadyevich did not suffer, and here two of his daughters more than seriously - doctors insisted on amputation of both legs at 16 - summer Natasha. Fortunately, managed, but the girl for the rest of life remained a disabled person. And from record from the scene “ legs with part of a stomach of a byvsha in gendarme " trousers are found; - jimjams.
Whether there were drastic measures compelled? Out of any doubts. Though, I do not undertake to acquit either those, or others. It was possible, probably, and somehow without skorostrelny voyenno - field vessels to manage. But it is visible whether wore out …
Is easy to fly with fetters?
Anyway, but revolution was strangled and there came good time to carry out reforms.
So, at least, Pyotr Arkadyevich considered.
Influential people from imperial spinning most of all were afraid of it. They were not tired to repeat to Nicholas II that “ the Moor made the business, the Moor can leave! “. Like, “ Stolypin " ties; (even here they took the benefit), for a long time discouraged the people to revolt and go against the tsar.
Could lead these reforms Russia to full blossoming? Yes and no. Yes, because they stirred up our country, caused an enthusiasm wave - there were new enterprises, workplaces were created, people hurried to live. No, from - for the fact that mighty Russia was not necessary neither to Europe, nor especially the USA which took great pain to inflate a fire spark. And more all Germany was impatient. And it in spite of the fact that in June, 1909 during Nicholas II`s meeting with the Emperor of Germany Wilhelm II, the German emperor very highly spoke of Stolypin: “ I would Have such minister on what height we would lift Germany! “
It - that, Wilhelm II, perfectly understood, five more - seven years, and already to stop nothing Russia … Stolypin did not live
A even up to World War I. He died in September, 1911, for the fifth day after attempt in the Kiev theater. The terrorist Bogrov shot explosive bullets. The death did not occur instantly only because the bullet otrikoshetit from a cross of St. Vladimir and left slightly aside. But despite all efforts of doctors, it was not succeeded to rescue Pyotr Arkadyevich …
Ya was on Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin`s grave which is in Kiyevo - Pechersky Monastery. To these on from it the mad power proceeds …
A Stolypin`s wife Olga died 33 years later already in California and is buried in San - Frantsisko.
It is a pity that Stolypin`s death was not the last. In six years the center of revolution swept away both the tsar, and the power of landowners and noblemen. But it is already other history …