What do we know about the inventor of an aquarium?
on April 6, 1810 in England the person whose invention millions of people use today was born. It is about Philipp Henry Goss, the naturalist who presented to mankind such necessary thing as an aquarium. Today it is it is unlikely possible to meet the person who did not enjoy the quiet, lulling course of life of decorative small fishes. But then, in the middle of the 19th century it was only necessary to dream of it.
Speak, the majority of inventions to the world was presented by odd fellows. Perhaps, Philip Henry was one of them. It had a profession fine for those times - the merchant. But young Philip did not want to plunge into it entirely, he was bewitched by beauty of wildlife, in particular, inhabitants of reservoirs. And you unless will be left indifferent by history of such small fish as Killy, or ikromechushchy karpozuby, aplokheylovy, kanavny, seasonal fishes. At them there is a lot of names, and life proceeds in such conditions that, apparently, the fairy tale of the nature became bylyyu … Judge
: habitat of these small fishes strikes with the variety: it can be both the drying-up pools and bogs of Africa, and ice streams of the American plateaus, and thermal sources with water temperature to 50 degrees! Everywhere they feel very comfortably.
Their caviar is unique in own way: it remains viable within two years, and in “ dry “ a look and it it is possible to send anywhere in the most ordinary parcel. And the palette of their paints would be envied by Leonardo da Vinci! Unless it is possible not to fall in love with them?
Something similar occurred also with Goss. It lost the head from small fishes in 17 forever - summer age when went in Newfoundland. And, butterflies and various bugs were his first love. But small fishes! Small fishes struck it in the heart.
Already a bit later he learned that else for one thousand years B.C. Chinese brought a goldfish. By the way, the Chinese emperors supported inhabitants of reservoirs in the partselyanovy vases decorated with lotus flowers. And to peasants had no time for a delicacy - they spun for the pets baskets from rice straw, such dense that water did not pour out. One trouble - both in the first, and in the second case of a wall of vessels were opaque, and small fishes could admire only from above.
The naturalist Goss became stronger even more in the desire to breed small fishes when studied the first European book on aquarium husbandry “ Natural history of pets “ Y. M. Bekhshteyna who was published in 1797 in Thuringia. It contained the description of conditions of keeping in bondage of a vyyun and a goldfish.
However, there was one essential hitch - the task of observance of balance of water flora and fauna and supply with their oxygen was not resolved. That is, small fishes could not live in the first aquariums long enough - water had to be changed in several hours. And the similar stress could not but be reflected in inhabitants of artificial reservoirs: in - the first, terms of life of these unique beings, and, in - the second were reduced, small fishes not really wanted to give posterity.
By 1850 Philip Henry, having worked in Newfoundland, Canada, Alabama and Jamaica, made the firm decision - to devote the life rest mainly to studying of life of marine animals. He - that also invented a special transparent vessel of quite large volume which called, without philosophizing crafty - “ aquarium “. What is “ Akwa “ to explain there is no need …
First “ public aquarium “ it was open in London Ridzhent - Park in the spring of 1853. But also before, since 1850, in London Goss showed small aquariums in which placed marine animals. After London public aquariums appeared in Berlin, Naples, Paris, the USA. And all - the real aquarian boom arose only after aquariums, were established at the World Fair in Paris in 1867.
And two years later, in 1869, Pierre Carbone for the first time managed to achieve spawning of makropod and to grow up their posterity in the conditions of an aquarium. It became a peculiar revolution in cultivation of small fishes too.
But it is necessary to tell that by this time French already thoroughly “ sat down “ on Philip Henry`s works Goss. The two-volume book " was the reference book of zoologists of those times; Manual of marine Zoologie “ which the English naturalist let out in 1855 - 1856. It is possible to call it without any stretches the alphabet of marine animals.
By the way, to Russia the general hobby for aquariums came slightly earlier, than to Paris. In 1863 in Moscow there took place the first exhibition of aquariums with domestic fresh-water fishes. And in 1870 in St. Petersburg society of fans of an aquarium which was headed by A. A. Nabatov - the author of books " was created; The Sea aquarium in the room, its equipment and care of it “ and “ Room fresh-water aquarium “.
But we will return to Philip Henry Goss. He lived long life and died on August 23, 1888. By the way, the only son of the naturalist went not in the footsteps of the father. Sir Edmund William of Gosse is known as the poet and the writer. At first it worked in department of cataloguing of the British Museum (1865 - 1875) then as the translator in the Ministry of Trade from 1875 to 1904, and then served as a librarian in Chamber of lords (1904 - 1914). Since 1875 Goss began to publish the poetic collections. In the history it remained and as the biographer of many much more famous colleagues. But the main thing - he achieved recognition and glory on foggy Albion too.
For certain, at many readers of our website is at home an aquarium. And watching a slow tide of life in an aquarium, remember, please, Philipp Henry Goss who put the most prestigious profession of the merchant on a history altar and became a naturalist. Thanks to it we can watch the bright world of inhabitants of reservoirs to the top of the bent.