What is Napoleon III famous for?
the famous nephew of Napoleon I, Napoleon III was born on April 20, 1808. His life is full of mad adventures, romanticism and political dreams who were not fated to come true up to the end. But he is a worthy successor of business of the uncle...
Ideas of Bonapartism occupied minds of people of mnoy generations. The Russian poetess Marina Tsvetaeva was simply “ it is sick “ Napoleon Bonaparte. It and is clear - brilliant career of Napoleon I, his popularity in the world turns all the head. To shame for the Russian society of the beginning of the 19th century, during Patriotic war of 1812, Napoleon so eclipsed the Russian emperor Alexander I - the outstanding diplomat, the experienced politician, and the subjugator of female hearts, - that Alexander`s glory, his aggressive campaigns, for many seem insignificant.
But in a family Bonapartov was famous not one Napoleon.
Not less meteoric career was made by his nephew - the rebel, the revolutionary and the creator of own empire - Napoleon III. He came to the power by means of revolution of 1848, and fell as a result of unsuccessful campaign free - Prussian war. So, how this follower of the famous uncle reached the situation? Napoleon III was born on April 20, 1808 in Paris. Ludovic Bonaparte, the younger brother of Napoleon I, and mother - Hortensius Bogarne, Josephine Bogarne`s daughter, the first wife of Napoleon was his father.
In 1815 juvenile Napoleon II was stripped of power, and the family Bonapartov was forced to leave France. In 1824, after long years of wandering across Europe, Hortensius with the son settle in Switzerland. Charles Louie, future emperor Napoleon III, got quite good education, was trained in military science. In 1832 the deposed Napoleon II died, and Charles Louie became the head of family Bonapartov. Approximately at this time he decides to follow in the footsteps of the famous uncle to win the French throne.
In 30 - e its first treatise " appeared; Political dreams “ in which it put forward the project of the democratic empire. In 1836 - 1837 he lives in exile in the USA after he lifted mutiny against the lawful governor of France king Louie - Philip I. In 1838 there was the second treatise of Charles Louis Napoleon “ Napoleonic ideas “. In it the author presents the vision to the optimum power: a combination of socialism and liberalism against general economic prosperity. The particular emphasis in work was placed on the fact that Bonaparta do not strive for tyranny and gains.
In 1840 he tried to overthrow the monarchy again for what he was put in prison. In 1840 - 1846 Bonaparte serves sentence in fortress Din. Conditions of its contents were not too strict. In prison he writes the third work - “ Overcoming of a pauperizm “. In May, 1846 he managed to escape from prison, having changed clothes in the bricklayer. After escape it took refuge in England. After overthrow of the monarchy in 1848 Mr. Charles Louie returned home. September of the same year - Bonaparte is elected by the deputy of the Constituent assembly. On December 10 the same year - Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte becomes the president of the French Republic. Being the president, Louis Napoleon bends all efforts to creation of the strong party of Bonapartists called “ Society on December 10 “. Bonaparte sought to govern independently.
As a result by the end of 1849 around the president the circle " was created; it “ people. But exists still ruling “ party of an order “ and the Legislative assembly which are dissatisfied with Bonaparte and is rejected by his many initiatives. On December 2, 1851 - Charles Louis Napoleon made revolution. On December 2, 1852 - Bonaparte proclaimed himself the emperor of the Second empire Napoleon III.
1852 - the beginning of 1860 - x years - blossoming of the Second empire. France under control of Napoleon III conducted active foreign policy: the island New Caledonia is occupied, colonies are based, concession on construction of the Suez Canal is received, the Russian Empire, the won war with Austria is won the Crimean war of 1853 - 1856 (1859) brings to France Savoy and Nice, successful military campaigns in the east are carried also out. Within the country actively the industry develops, the railroads are constructed. Paris is reconstructed, and the imperial yard returns itself former splendor. France gets authority on the international community.
1853 - Napoleon III marries Spaniard Maria Evgenia Augustine Ignasiya de Montikho, the countess Tobskaya and the most beautiful woman in the world. It was younger than Bonaparte for 18 years. Before marrying the Spanish noblewoman, Napoleon made request to all European states, however everything including Russia, refused to him, considering that he illegally came to the power. On March 16, 1856 - Napoleon III`s son, prince Evgeny Ludovic Jean Joseph is born (it is known as Napoleon IV).
Till a marriage of the loved president there was the English actress Ms. Howard who made everything that it ascended to a throne. Whether there was it love, or the woman moved ambition - it is unknown, however, Napoleon preferred Evgenia.
Ms. Howard gave birth to it to two children whom she took away to herself home together with unrealized dreams. After the exile she married, and endured the lover.
Winter of 1858 in Paris attempt at Napoleon III was made. From explosion on a theater square tens of people died. The imperial couple going to the opera practically did not suffer. When the performer of attempt was executed (the Italian on a nationality), the empress Evgenia Montikho sent it to children all toys of the son.
In 1862 - 1867 Napoleon III organized a military campaign to Mexico. The purposes of this project were really Napoleonic - to organize the Mexican empire headed by the archduke Austrian Maximilian Habsburg. Unsuccessful Mexican expedition not only yielded to the state treasury huge losses, but also considerably undermined authority of the existing power. The carried-out external and internal transformations form a budget deficit, at the country debts collect. On this background the opposition amplifies. The prestige of the Second empire and its leader steadily fell. Soon Napoleon III is forced to make concessions to opposition and to return to Legislative assembly (which earlier actually had no right to vote) the rights of a legislative initiative. May, 1870 - in France the constitutional monarchy is established.
Summer of 1870 - France begins war with Prussia. Despite weakness (from - it hardly held diseases of kidneys in a saddle), the emperor personally headed troops. On September 1 the army in which Napoleon III`s staff settles down gets to an environment and next day capitulates. Charles Louie is taken prisoner and imprisoned in the lock Vilgelmskhy.
On September 4, 1870 - in Paris the opposition lifted revolt as a result of which the Second empire stops the existence. Napoleon III is deposed by National assembly on March 1, 1871 - imprisoned free - the Prussian peace treaty (The Frankfurt world). The former emperor is released. He makes the decision to go with the wife and the son to England. Charles Louis Napoleon spent the life rest in a manor Kemden - a house to Chislkherste (the town near London).
On January 9, 1873 - Charles Louis Napoleon Bonaparte died in Chislkhersta. Originally in the same place it is also buried, however several years later Evgenia Montikho built the mausoleum in an imperial crypt of abbey of St Michael in Hampshire where ashes of her husband were transferred.