What is “ nuclear winter “?
In the sky blossom the second Sun. A second pause trees also flash, asphalt begins to melt. In several seconds the shock wave sweeps away everything on the way and entrains hundreds of tons of dust and garbage into which houses turn. Over the city the huge tree of a nuclear mushroom blossoms. Light grows dim. There comes the doomsday …
Horrific image, isn`t that so? It was shown in fantastic movies more than once - accidents. However very few people thought of the fact that the most terrible at nuclear war, consists not in explosions (though, certainly, the part of the victims will become a tribute to them).
After the known events taking place in Hiroshima and Nagasaki began studying consequences of possible nuclear war - destruction from explosions, influence of radiation. In 80 - x years the researches devoted to the climatic consequences called " were conducted; in the nuclear winter “.
The fiery sphere of nuclear explosion burns objects from the center at a great distance. To a third of energy of explosion it is emitted in the form of a light impulse. During this time the tree, paper, other flammable materials light up, the scattering sparks, the burning fragments cause the fires which can continue many days.
When a set of the independent fires unite in one big, is formed “ fiery tornado “ capable to destroy the whole city (as it was when bombing Dresden on February 13, 1945). Allocation of heat in the center of it “ tornado “ lifts the enormous mass of air up. “ Tornado “ lifts in a stratosphere a smoke, dust and soot which form the cloud closing a sunlight comes “ nuclear night “ and then and “ nuclear winter “.
According to the most sparing theories, at the nuclear conflict of average scales is formed about 200 million tons of soot and dust which 30% are made by the carbon absorbing a sunlight. As a result the area between 30 - m and 60 - m in degrees of a northern latitude will be deprived of a sunlight for several weeks.
Why scientists did not notice “ nuclear winter “ earlier? The reason of it is covered that the carried-out nuclear tests were single explosions while most “ soft “ the scenario of the nuclear conflict which is followed “ at nuclear night “ provides blow to many large cities. Besides, tests were carried out so that at the same time there were no heavy fires.
Studying and modeling of global problems began in 70 - e years in the USSR. Similar results on the coordinated scenario of nuclear war were at the same time received also by the American scientists. Further, calculations and for two " were carried out; limit scenarios “: “ rigid “ (total power of explosions of 10 000 Mt) and “ soft “ (100 Mt).
In the first case is used by about 75% of total capacity of nuclear powers. It is so-called all-out nuclear warfare. In the second scenario “ it is spent “ less than 1% of the nuclear arsenal which is available in the world. However, and it is 8200 “ hirosy “ (“ rigid “ option - nearly one million)!
Soot, a smoke and dust in the atmosphere over the Northern hemisphere, undergone attacks, will spread to huge squares, in 2 weeks having covered all Northern hemisphere and partially Southern. Soot and dust will be in the atmosphere, creating the opaque veil which is not passing light. Particles long will settle on the earth by gravity and to be washed away by rains.
Calculations showed that dust and soot in the atmosphere will remain much longer, than believed before. Prizemny air will be colder being above, the so-called water cycle in the nature considerably will weaken, rainfall will become less. All this will lead to the fact that “ nuclear winter “ will drag on. Sharp, strong (from 15 to 50 degrees in different regions) and long cooling of air over continents will ruin practically all live. Especially heavy consequences would appear in the summer when over the land temperature falls in the Northern hemisphere below freezing waters.
“ Nuclear winter “ would cause an avalanche of pernicious effects. These are, first of all, sharp jumps of temperature between the land and the ocean which will cause the strongest hurricanes. Over the continents shipped at night, held down by cold cruel droughts will burst. Plants will not manage to adapt to low temperatures and will die.
Many animals in the Northern hemisphere will not survive from - for a lack of food and complexity of its search in “ nuclear night “. In tropics and subtropics the cold will be an important factor. Many species of mammals, all birds will die. Perhaps, reptiles will remain.
The question of the accuracy of results from the scientific point of view is very important. However “ critical point “ after which irreversible climate changes of Earth begin, it is already defined: “ nuclear threshold “ it is very low - about 100 Mt. No system of antimissile defense can be impenetrable for 100%. Meanwhile, for irreparable trouble there will be enough also 1% of the existing nuclear arsenals.
Phenomenon “ nuclear winter “ it was studied by scientific community. In 1985. The scientific committee on studying of problems of environment protection (SKOPE) issued the two-volume edition devoted to estimates of climatic and ecological consequences of nuclear war.
“ show Calculations , - it was said in it, - that dust and a smoke will spread to tropics and the most part of the Southern hemisphere. Thus, even the non-belligerent countries, including being in the distance from the area of the conflict, will experience its pernicious influence. India, Brazil, Nigeria or Indonesia can be destroyed as a result of nuclear war in spite of the fact that in their territory any warhead will not become torn... “ Nuclear winter “ means essential strengthening of scales of sufferings for mankind, including the nations and regions which are not involved directly in nuclear war... Nuclear war will cause destruction of life on Earth, accident, unprecedented in human history, and will be threat to the existence of mankind “.
The old Soviet slogan, a scrap of memoirs from the childhood &ndash is remembered; “ To the World world! “. Let`s make so that all about what you read now, remained only on paper. Let`s live in peace and friendship! World to your house!