What taste of coffee depends on?
of Coffee it is sensitive to the modes of its processing at production.
Truism is that on quality of grain it is possible to make quite good coffee of an average, but it is even more probable to ruin excellent grain, without having sustained the necessary modes of processing.
Italians consider that to create good coffee, it is necessary to follow the law of four M strictly. These letters mean:
- Michella - mix of coffee grains;
- Maccinato - grinding degree;
- Macchina - the coffee maker;
- Mano - a hand of the one who makes coffee. we Will consider
in more detail.
Michella - mix of coffee grains
Exists about 70 types of botanical grades of coffee, from them most often use only two. “ Coffea Arabica “ it is known at us under the name “ " Arabica coffee; its share makes about 70% of all world production of coffee. “ Coffea canephor “ or “ Coffea Robusta “ - so-called “ " Robusta; - 30%.
Word “ " robusta; in translation designates “ strong and strong “. From that how many to add robusta to mix, drink fortress depends. Arabica coffee gives to coffee delicate aroma and soft sourness, and robusta - provides fortress and adds a slightly bitter taste.
How to distinguish them? Arabica coffee grains - oblong, uniform coloring. Robusta has roundish grains, after roasting seldom happens uniform color. Distinguish hundreds of grades which properties depend on the country of growth of coffee, plantation height above sea level, a way of collecting coffee beans and many other reasons from grains of these two types.
Mixes allow to receive various flavoring shades of coffee. For example, mix soft Colombian grades and the sharp Indian. Creation of high-quality mix - labor-intensive and long process. Mix is repeatedly tasted for identification of an optimum proportion of grades. Happens that to shade any flavoring or aromatic shade, in mix use up to ten various grades of coffee.
However there are people preferring coffee not in the form of high-quality mixes, and the grains of one grade made only on one any plantation. For them let out specialty coffees - perfect grains of arabica coffee with any of the most known plantations of the world. Names of grades correspond to names of plantations. Such coffee is grown up, as a rule, without use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
From - for roastings coffee grains become porous, and aromatic components freely disappear. Therefore the fried coffee unpacked loses flavoring properties already several days later. Besides, if the fried coffee is on air, fatty components of coffee, contacting to oxygen, turn rancid, and taste of drink spoils.
The tight glasswares best of all is suitable for storage of grains of coffee, it does not keep a smell of the previous party of coffee which can spoil the following party. For storage of coffee no more than a week of special measures should not be accepted, but for storage within two weeks - month it is better to place it in the refrigerator and to store at 10 °C, it is more than a month - to freeze grains to -10 °C. It will allow to slow down the chemical reactions leading to damage of grains.
The big companies pack the fried coffee into tight vacuum packing. It allows to store coffee without loss of live aroma more than two years.
Maccinato - grinding degree
Is opinion that in devices of espresso it is more preferable to use coffee of a rough grinding and big pressure, than on the contrary. If coffee powder too small, it forms the dense bed for a long time holding hot water therefore flying aromatic components are evaporated, and aroma of coffee worsens.
To store ground coffee especially difficult, its aromatic substances disappear not on days, and on hours. But if so it happened that you had ground coffee, it is better to store it in airtight tin or glass jars, and it is desirable, in the refrigerator.
The firms which are letting out ground coffee or coffee in tablets (monodose) pack it into the multilayered tight packages filled with nitrogen. Often coffee pack into metal tins. From cans extort air, fill them with inert gas and pressurize. This way is applied to the most prestigious grades.
Macchina - the coffee maker Is thought up by
a set of types of coffee makers. It both automatic kofevarochny devices, and mechanical kofetiyer, and espresso coffee makers. The last are most perfect and convenient. The general principle of their action consists in passing of hot water under a high pressure through the pressed coffee powder.
For preparation of good coffee the pure, fresh, not boiled, not chlorinated water, without smells is necessary. Water should not be too rigid. In hard water extraction of coffee proceeds worse. Respectively, and its taste leaves much to be desired. Salts of rigidity connect the extracted substances, and they settle on cup walls in the form of a dirty rim.
The best is use of the water which passed through the special water-purifying filter - a desalter. Well prepared water allows to save up to 25% of coffee due to its best extraction.
Mano - the creator`s hand do not make Coffee to
, make it. Water temperature, depending on a coffee grade, has to be within 85 - 98 °C. It is temperature when water boils “ white key “ (at the same time it grows white a little). Process of extraction takes place in less hot water is incomplete, from coffee not enough caffeine and aromatic oils is emitted, and at temperature increase acidity of drink increases. It is impossible to overheat coffee at all. It destroys its aroma.
To make coffee in Turkish, in a cezve it is necessary to fill up thinly ground coffee - at the rate of two teaspoons on a glass of water, a sugar spoon, to fill in with cold water and to put on fire (and it is better - in the heated sand).
It is necessary to watch closely that coffee not “ ran away “. As soon as coffee begins to rise, it should be removed immediately from fire and to set aside aside. As soon as foam accumulates, again to put on fire, and so three times. Then to pour coffee on cups.
Before flood of coffee do not stir, try to keep in absolute rest to besiege a thick. Sedimentation accelerates several drops of cold boiled water. Add a little foam to each cup. As Arabs " speak; foam - the person of the " coffee;.