Who created the Russian porcelain? Part 2
5 of June, 1744 under the decree of the empress Elizabeth was based by Portselinovaya a manufactory - the Russia`s first and Europe`s third porcelain production. But to open the enterprise - yet does not mean to turn out at it products. How to do porcelain, in Russia still nobody knew. And Elizabeth once again tried to invite the overseas expert. Christoph Konrad Gunger who promised " was that; to found in St. Petersburg a manufactory for making of the Dutch ware, takozh and a pure portselin as it in Saxony becomes “.
However the task of the empress was to begin not so much production of porcelain under the leadership of the overseas specialist how many to adopt his secrets. For this purpose Elizabeth “ on the highest whim “ charged supervision for future “ manufactory “ to the baron Cherkasov operating its personal office. The same, “ for supervision of business of a portselin “ put a young bergmeyster of Vinogradov to Gunger. Dmitry zealously got down to business, wishing to study thoroughly all subtleties of craft, he did not move a step from Gunger.
But the more he looked narrowly at Gunger`s actions, the stronger was convinced of his ignorance. The matter is that that was an ordinary alchemist - the charlatan, or as they were called then “ arkanist “. Such then there was a set in Europe. Its only task was to beat out more money from the empress. The baron Cherkasov most of all wanted to please the almighty monarchess. Vinogradov was the only thing who really wanted to create porcelain.
Subsequently Vinogradov wrote about Gunger: “ How many such pobrodyag is in light which of anything want to do gold, other of all stones and lands pure portselin are promised to make, and very do not know either the basis, or true art also that who gives in to their deception, and full shops of pure porcelain promise the whole mountains to a portselin of good matter. But, invisible, those shops with porcelain only on air build and only the smoke and children for portselin sell and through that the obmanstvo in great blaze others and losses enter “.
The difference of interests of Gunger and Vinogradov was led to frank hostility between them. Gunger understood that Dmitry is the only person who can expose him. And therefore frankly prevented it to be engaged in own researches, and even repeatedly tried to blacken Vinogradov in the opinion of Cherkasov. The same instead of understanding a question essence, threatened with repressions more and more.
Having convinced that from Gunger positive results are there been nothing to be waited, Vinogradov, tried to receive porcelain, and in 1747 could make several successful samples. It was necessary to hurry - in Russia then, independent attempts to solve a secret of ancient craft were made there.
For example, in 1724 the Russian merchant Afanasy Grebenshchikov founded faience factory, and tried to make at it porcelain. In 1747 it almost managed it. But the received samples were far from an ideal, and these developments did not gain further development in spite of the fact that Grebenshchikov was, apparently, on a right way.
At last, nevertheless, it became clear that Gunger - a baby`s dummy, and in 1748 he was dismissed. Charged to direct the Portselinovy manufactory to Dmitry. Though, no, now to Dmitry Ivanovich. Using the found freedom, he organized systematic scientifically - technical work.
Vinogradov developed compoundings of porcelain masses, glazes and paints on porcelain, looked for raw materials, adjusted its production, cleaning and delivery, designed calcination furnaces and conducted tests of various grades of fuel, investigated the roasting modes. It was “ diligent work “ as he called it.
At the same time Dmitry Ivanovich trained for himself employees, assistants and successors. Unlike overseas experts he hid nothing from those who helped to create to it the Russian porcelain. More than thousands of experiences Vinogradov systematically wrote down results in the magazine.
Yes, there were many assistants, but nevertheless “ first violin “ there was it, Dmitry Vinogradov. He somehow wrote about it: “ In a word, there was no such person who to me that to show or prisovetovat the best could “. And it turned out that the Russian technology of porcelain was created independently, without involvement of the western experts, and not blindly, and as a result of strict scientific work.
In 1752 purely research stage of works of Vinogradov comes to an end. The manufactory earned, and in 1753 production of porcelain was put on a stream. The first products owing to technical imperfection of production were small - any porcelain miscellanea from buttons, knobs for canes and hilts of swords to powder boxes and snuffboxes.
Then things went more largely. The first imperial service was made “ according to the recipe “ Vinogradov in 1756. Table plates and vases, tureens " entered it; with seductresses “ and the seductress with “ delights “ gentlemen with awards and cups in a set under the name “ Empress`s Whim “. There were orders from individuals. Process went.
However dedicated work cost to Vinogradov life. The constant excessive tension which he tried to weaken acceptance of strong drinks was led to chronic alcoholism with all that it implies. As the creator it sputtered out. Here what Dmitry wrote the baron Cherkasov: “ What I will not be accepted to, almost everything at me from hands falls, and in my thoughts all strange is installed: there to expect some reasoning where only the dwelling has concern... “
And than the grateful fatherland helped Vinogradov? The patient brought to hallucinations, he... it was chained to the " furnace; for a while to roasting... that slept " there;. “ Having stayed “ three days on a chain, on August 25, 1758 Vinogradov died. He was 38 years old.