What is the WiMax technology?
By estimates of experts and marketing specialists of the Intel company, in the near future about one billion users will be connected to the Internet with use of the WiMax technology of the IEEE 802 standard worldwide. 16. What the technology is?
Consortium WiMax Forum - the main non-profit organization which is engaged in development and certification of the new standard of broadband Wireless - technology in the frequency range of 10 - 66 GHz. WiMax Forum was founded in 2001 by the leading telecom operators and the largest world famous producers of the electronic and telecommunication equipment.
At present this organization totals several hundreds of members, including such largest companies as Intel, Fujitsu, AT &T, BT, Motorola, Samsung, Siemens Mobile, etc.
the Technological basis of WiMax (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) really is the new IEEE 802 protocol. 16 which allows to provide at the same time broadband high-speed Internet access and data transmission, as well as services of telephony without use of cable lines. Unlike other technologies of a radio access, WiMax allows to work in the conditions of dense urban development out of direct visibility of a base station. It is very actual for large megalopolises, it is not necessary to establish special towers, and it is enough to establish a base station on roofs of buildings or high-rise constructions that allows to develop very quickly such network on long distances.
One more important plus of this technology, unlike Wi - Fi which radius of a covering does not exceed 100 meters - WiMax cover zone, under certain conditions, can reach 50 km. Therefore it can be useful to such people for whom, the Internet or even usual telephony, for example in the remote areas where just there is no opportunity to carry out cable networks or DSL is inaccessible. And there is a lot of such users across all Russia therefore WiMax in our country will develop quickly enough and will make success not only at corporate clients and various organizations, but also at private users, under one, of course, condition that the payment for the equipment will be rather low.
This technology will allow the enterprises with a set of branches (for example, distribution networks) to build the company wireless networks on the basis of WiMax - one set of the equipment allows to receive to 8 - mi telephone numbers, with an exit in city telephone networks, the high-speed Internet. Thus, for example, three branches of the company having three separate local networks on the basis of Wi - Fi, can be merged in uniform into the central office of WiMax - a network. Therefore this system is developed especially for the solution of such problems.
Safety of WiMax - a network is provided at the physical level with specially developed ASIC chips which are built in devices of a wireless communication and operate process of data transmission on a radio channel:
1. They protect from confidentiality violation attempts.
2. Prevent violation of integrity of data.
3. Prevent falsification (violation of authenticity of a source - the consumer).
4. Exclude refusal in service.
Structure of networks
the Local Wi networks - Fi can serve clients in the certain room and as at most - in the certain building of average dimensions, and the local WiMax networks can serve clients in several tens buildings in a radius from 1 to 5 kilometers.
And radius of action of the WiMax network depends on many factors:
1. Data transmission speeds, i.e. the are higher transfer speed, the action radius is less.
2. Architecturally - geographical features of the district (for example, degree of radio transparency of buildings).
3. Conditions of placement of antennas - receivers.
4. From the number of the subbearing frequencies used by this concrete technological WiMax system (for example, in the Expidience system of the Synterra WiMax network 1024 subbearing frequencies while the basic system has only 256 subbearing frequencies are used).
And standard 802. 16e provides mobility, i.e. it will support such devices as laptops, a PDA, and also cell phones. Some companies, such as Accton, Gemtek, Zyxel and others, declared that in 2007 they will make WiMax - the equipment for mobile application and will increase release volumes in the third quarter 2007.
WiMax in Russia
In Russia operation of networks of the IEEE 802 standard. 16 (pre - WiMax) already began. So, at the end of April, 2005 independent national telecom operator “ Synterra “ began connection of the first Moscow users.
the Basis of this network made multiplexers of production of the Israeli firm ECI Telecom with a capacity of 2. 4 Gbit / with, 622 Mbps, and also 155 Mbps.
the Network works at the equipment Expedience of the American company NextNet Wireless Inc., which in 2006 was a part of Motorola, being the participant of consortium WiMax Forum.
The equipment of the Moscow network functions in the range of frequencies of 2,5 - 2,7 GHz, with a speed of Internet access from 64 Kbps to 1,3 Mbps. Today " network; Synterra “ covers about 90% of the territory of Moscow. Also the company obtained licenses for construction of the corresponding networks in 17 cities of the Russian Federation (including 15 regional centers), already now the regional network of this company is started in such cities as Belgorod and Kursk.
In 2005 one more company - “ ACBT “ the Russian telecom operator, declared construction of the pre network - WiMax in Moscow and the Moscow region from pilot zones. At the moment the company puts into operation the first site of a broadband radio access of a network in the settlement of Kraskovo of Lyuberetsky District.
Lyuberetsky District is chosen as actively developing, in its territory housing construction of schools, sports clubs, restaurants, business centers, supermarkets is conducted. It created need for modern communication services which will allow to use advantages of the WiMax network as the standard providing remote communication. Subscribers - natural persons, can connect telephone numbers and choose one of four tariff plans for Internet access. " network frequencies; ACBT “ in the range of 5,65 - 5,725 GHz are given out on all Moscow region.
Now at quite high tariffs for the services WiMax - communications, is economically expedient their application in urban areas where resources of city phone lines are settled. Further, with a growth of number of clients and emergence of own WiMax - roaming such networks will become economic during creation of national WiMax - networks.
For example, three basic WiMax - stations allow to serve 1500 clients within one city, with the population 1 million people. And two cities connected by intermediate stations are already the first main cell of long-distance telecommunication roaming that is already available in four cities Is central - the federal district of Russia. Thus, creation of the large-scale network which is geographically distributed telecommunication on the basis of the WiMax technology is only a matter of time and investments.