Who created the Russian porcelain? Part 1
In life happens everyone. Even the most improbable. It is important to learn only in time that you faced just such case. And if incidentally you became the owner of the porcelain cup or a snuffbox marked by a brand in the form of the stylized letter W moreover added date relating to the middle of the 17th century, grape clusters with leaves, then know that you caught destiny by lapels.
Because before you a unique thing. Because in the world such it is known only nine. Because it is made by Dmitry Ivanovich Vinogradov. You do not know it?
Dmitry was born in 1720 in the Old Russian city of Suzdal. His father, Ivan Stepanovich, was the archpriest and the sacristan in Nativity Cathedral. The father very much wanted that children went on his feet, and took care of their worthy education.
Together with the elder brother Yakov Dmitry was brought up in Moscow, trained at Spassky school at Slavyano - Greco - Latin academy of Zaikonospassky Monastery. It was one of the most authoritative educational institutions of the country, it is enough to tell that there the architect Bazhenov, the mathematician Magnitsky, the writer Kantemir were trained. At this time there also Mikhaylo Lomonosov studied.
Thirteen-year-old Dmitry not only got acquainted with it, but also made friends though that was nine years more senior. The huge desire to study and endowments helped Dmitry to catch up quickly with Lomonosov, and then to pass with it together in one year three classes.
At the end of 1735 both brothers Vinogradov and Lomonosov among other twenty pupils were sent to St. Petersburg for continuation of education at Academy of Sciences. And did not pass year as Dmitry Vinogradov, Mikhaylo Lomonosov and Gustav Ulrich Rejser as the best pupils are directed to study to Germany.
Ponder! Experience! In sixteen years, according to the offer of the Secret cabinet, on representation to the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, under the decree of the empress, as one of the best! Here it, genius`s grasp!
They were necessary to study “ between other sciences and arts especially and the major of chemistry and metallurgy to this volume, as for before mining or hand-written art “. Dmitry excitedly was accepted to science.
You likely imagined to yourself initial diligent the swot? Anything similar. Youth prevailed. Dmitry differed in both uncontrollable temper, and violent behavior, and wasteful binges.
If you remember the serial film Lomonosov, you have to remember also cheerful life “ schoolboys “ in Saxony. But, nevertheless, he studied, studied and studied.
Understanding that the theory without practice is dead, it was wound on mines, got acquainted with the structure of mines, operation of the mining machinery and appliances. And itself worked in mines.
With baggage of thorough fundamental knowledge and rich practical experience it returned to Russia in February, 1744. By results of examinations Berg - the board certified him the surveyor in a rank the captain - the lieutenant, and upon termination of a year - a bergmeyster, i.e. the mining engineer.
But, actually, he did not happen to visit that. On November 5, 1744 it was ranked as Kabinetu Eya of Majesty. It was expected by a new difficult task - to open porcelain know-how, or as it was called then, portselina.
Still Peter I wished to organize production of domestic porcelain passionately. He perfectly understood that to become the European state, except a victory near Narva and Poltava it is necessary to win also ideological war. Therefore he in every way spread in, we will softly tell, uncivilized Russia arts and crafts.
For a solution of know-how of porcelain which was known only in China and Saxony in those days the cunning tsar went in the traditional way - was engaged industrial in espionage. It sent a certain Yury Kologrivy to Meyssen, but that came to grief. Pyotr tried to bribe Chinese, however the sums requested by those were unreasonably big. Attempt to involve foreign masters to Russia was not successful too. There was one - by own efforts anew to invent technology of porcelain.
During lifetime of Pyotr of it it was not succeeded to make. The desire of the father was embodied by the empress Elizabeth.