How halogen lamps are arranged?
in the course of production of glow lamps big jump were addition to gases forward - to fillers of very aggressive additives - halogens of iodine or bromine.
The matter is that temperature of a thread of an incandescence of a lamp cannot exceed a certain limit. Tungsten of which the thread is made is higher than this limit, begins to evaporate intensively.
The evaporating tungsten is besieged in the form of a dark raid on lamp walls that does it more dim. The thread becomes thinner at the expense of what the lamp quickly fuses.
In a halogen lamp the evaporating metal tungsten is not besieged on rather cold walls of a flask, and forms volatile compound with halogen.
Halogenide of tungsten circulates on flask volume, and, reaching the heated tungsten thread, decays on initial components. Halogen comes back to a cycle, and metal tungsten partially accumulates on a thread, and partially remains in a look “ atmospheres “ around a thread.
The increased concentration of vapors of tungsten in close proximity to a thread sharply slows down its further evaporation just as the damp atmosphere does not allow to dry to wet linen. As a result the thread does not become thinner, and glass remains transparent.
But to these the advantage of halogens is not limited. Now the thread can be heated stronger, nearly to a tungsten melting point - its evaporation is slowed down. It allows to bring closer color of their radiation to natural solar.
The successfully brightest, beautiful, saturated light of halogen lamps is characterized by an epithet “ juicy “. Consider still that this “ juiciness “ does not run low throughout all service life of lamps. And term of this service twice longer than the ordinary glow lamp, similar on power.
Luminous efficiency of halogen lamps is twice higher than light return of ordinary glow lamps. It follows from this that replacement of usual lamps by halogen will allow to reduce an electric power expense significantly.
Halogen lamps happen two types: the high-voltage, working energized 220 V and low-voltage, on 6, 12, 24 and 36 V. Chashche apply 12 - voltny lamps.
Advantages of low-voltage lamps it is available - the increased safety, especially in the conditions of the increased humidity, such as, in a bathroom and longer term of life.
Average service life 220 - voltny lamps of 2000 hours, 12 - voltny - 4000. However for them the transformer lowering tension with 220 on 12 V and separate conducting is necessary.
A lack of halogen lamps is their hypersensibility to network power surges therefore it is desirable to include them through a voltage stabilizer.
For achievement of the greatest efficiency of a lamp it is expedient to use it at the full capacity declared by the manufacturer. However its brightness can be regulated by means of standard svetoregulyator.
Lowering lamp power, it is possible to lower or even to turn off work of a halogen cycle, and it will begin to work as the ordinary glow lamp. For restoration of work of halogens and removal of the metal particles of tungsten which settled on flask walls it is enough to include for several minutes a lamp at full capacity.
From shortcomings of halogen lamps it should be noted also that temperature of a surface of a flask can reach 500 º With therefore it is necessary to respect strictly the rules of fire safety at installation of lamps. It is impossible to touch the included or insufficiently cooled down lamp as it can lead to serious burns.
And the cooled-down lamp it is not necessary to take barehanded. From it on a flask of a lamp there are fat spots, after inclusion fat under the influence of high temperature chars, black particles of coal absorb warmly and are strongly heated. From - for local an overheat the flask can burst, and the lamp to blow up.
The lamp should be taken, using pure gloves made of cloth, a piece of pure fabric or at least a tissue. If the flask is soiled by something, it needs to be wiped with alcohol.
Recently halogen lamps of a low voltage with a reflector were widely adopted. In these lamps to two thirds of infrared radiation of a lamp it is reflected by a translucent mirror therefore the covered objects are exposed to heating less. The cooled-down lamps with a reflector can be taken hands.
High color temperature of halogen lamps not always the benefit - is present at their range surplus of an ultraviolet which is unhealthy. Therefore, buying a halogen lamp, pay special attention whether it is supplied with protection against an ultraviolet.