What is risk of death from a civilization?
we Will try to understand: what, created by the person, artificial factors lead to death? It is called risk of death from a civilization.
It is obvious that take place both professional risks, and risks of the people who are not participating in work. As of the second half 20 - go centuries in Western Europe and Japan the average annual risk of death from accident made about ten in minus of the fourth degree. At the same time it consisted of sizes of risk of death on transport, in industrial production, construction and in life. It is a lot of or a little: one case on ten thousand people? For comparison it is possible to tell that those years the risk of death from a carcinoma of a lung equaled to similar size and was considered as high.
Besides, at an assessment of risk of death from a civilization it is necessary to consider radiation, environmental risks and risks of various medical manipulations - both diagnostic, and medical. Possibly, it is also necessary to include cases of death of people at acts of terrorism in civilization risks, in anti-terrorist operations and the military conflicts.
However let`s mean a peace time, and we will use data of the researcher E. Hall on the risks connected with various external sources. For population in 150 million people (that approximately corresponds to the population of Russia) road accidents give 37000 death a year. Falling - 15000 death are much less dangerous; the fires and gunshot wounds give respectively 6000 and 1500 death a year; plane crashes - also 1500 death. But there is more to come misfortunes.
After the Chernobyl accident many Russians are concerned by probability of radiation from various sources of ionizing radiation. It should be noted that average dose load of the resident of Russia makes 1,2 - 1,5 mev / year that is twice higher, than in other developed industrial countries. The risk of annual mortality from radiation in Russia makes 72000 - 90000 people a year; for Moscow: 7300 - 7800 people a year. However, the death occurs not at once, and later the latent period (10 - 25 years) of development of the diseases caused by radiation.
Radiodiagnosis gives the greatest nadfonovy radiation of the population. Radiation at the expense of medical X-ray diagnostic testings in Russia causes in year of 16000 death, hereditary changes and a serious illness. Naturally, there is a question: why to us such radiodiagnosis which gives 16000 probable undesirable consequences a year? It is obvious that everything is learned in comparison. According to WHO data (World Health Organization) if at such nosological form as pneumonia not to make radiological research of bodies of a chest cavity, then mortality increases much and reaches 15 percent from number of the diseased. Means, objectively there is certain swing “ risk - advantage “ which in Japan, the USA and countries of Western Europe are very carefully estimated. At us everything is neglected.
It was only one example from the field of medical radiology. For certain and in other narrow medical specialties there is something similar. The reasons of such situation consist not only in insufficient professional knowledge of a number of experts, and first of all, in lack of the modern medical equipment in the majority of regional hospitals of the Russian Federation. Without speaking about hospitals of regional level. Today in usual Russian TsRB you can meet, for example, the domestic x-ray equipment of a sample 70 - x years of the last century. In the West the similar equipment was used somewhere at the beginning of 60 - x, and after 5 - 7 years moved to higher level...
From - for such characteristic strokes figures of early mortality of residents of Russia also appear. Now average life expectancy of men in Russia is two years lower than a retirement age.
It is also necessary to note that, according to expert opinions, the vast majority of people prefer life expectancy to its quality, and the coefficient of weight of life expectancy is significantly higher. Such dependence is noted in the USA and countries of Western Europe. As with it the situation in Russia is - it is covered with a gloom. At us similar the physician - social researches were not conducted.
… It is difficult to present our life without achievements of a modern civilization, but it is impossible to exclude risk of death from a civilization in principle. At today`s level of development of mankind such average annual risk makes about ten in minus of the fourth degree. However to increase an exponent in this unpleasant number it is quite real with development of science, equipment and medicine. And each of us should learning to estimate competently a notorious ratio “ risk - advantage “.