How to dry up a personal plot?
you arrived on the favourite site, want to have a rest, lie down on a grass - and there pools and slush. Waterlogged a cellar, from the base the moldy dampness lasts up. And trees stand become sad, and it is simply impossible to put something in a kitchen garden - dirt sticks to a shovel. Disorder.
But it is possible to prevent it and even without special works. It is just necessary to think of it in advance and to arrange a drainage on a site.
The drainage is the engineering system intended for removal from soil of excess moisture. In a general view it is the system of ditches, channels, pipes, biases equipped so that to facilitate a filtration and removal of water from a site.
Distinguish superficial and deep drainages. The superficial drainage is intended for fast removal of rain and thawed snow. The deep drainage is necessary for decrease in level of ground waters. It is necessary if ground waters are at a depth less than 175 cm.
Closer arrangement of level of ground waters to a surface leads to rotting of roots of plants. In the fall excess of moisture in the soil leads to its fast and deep frost penetration. Excessive moisture also is harmful to structures.
A deep and superficial drainage supplement each other, they can be arranged in parallel, and even, in some cases, to unite in one system.
The simplest system of a deep drainage represents dug out with a bias towards a final water intake (a ravine, a bog, a pond, the lake, a ditch) of a ditch.
In order that ditches did not interfere with movement on a site, fill them with a beaten brick, a stone, crushed stone or any other similar materials.
Drainage ditches, as a rule, dig on site perimeter. Their width 0,5 and depth is 0,6 - 0,7 m. Walls of a ditch mow at an angle about 20 - 30 degrees. From them dewater in a ditch, the general for several sites. Such drainage is cheap, but is not free from many shortcomings.
The main shortcoming - it is short-lived, and it is difficult to restore it without affection of shape of a site. There is a fast silting of a filler and deterioration in work of system. Besides, an open drainage do not recommend to apply under roads from - for possible sags of soil.
The closed drainage is more perfect. Such type of a drainage does not break the image of the territory and allows to use the soil for the device of lawns, landings of other plants, it is possible even for construction of easy constructions without the base.
For the closed drainage lay a trench, usually 0,7 - 1,5 m in depth, 0,5 m wide. It is dug out with a small bias towards a natural waterway or a drainage well. The bottom of a trench is covered sand and small crushed stone about 10 cm high
the Layer of filling is leveled according to a pipe tilt angle (5 mm/m) and rammed. Stack drainage pipes with carefully verified bias on the pillow prepared thus. The drainage pipe differs from all other pipes in the fact that its porous walls pass water.
The trench is filled up half with crushed stone so that the water passing layer of crushed stone surrounded the pipeline from all directions. From above fill gravel, the earth taken when digging a trench, and over it stack a turf layer. Depending on local conditions also other structure and an order of fillings is possible.
For reduction of labor input of works drainage pipes and pipes of the stormwater drainage system often lay in parallel in one trench.
Usually from the central drainage pipe lay several lateral. The central pipe collects water from the lateral pipes adjoining it and takes away it out of limits of a site or in a drainage well. Drainage wells arrange, when there is no a sufficient bias for removal of water or there are no place to dewater.