What we know trisyllabic meters, or “ It could not Yamba from a trochee … “
Where to Onegin to an amphibrach, an anapaest and a dactyl if it could not the simple disyllabic sizes distinguish from each other. And without these trisyllabic sizes our poetic life would be monotonous. Not without reason the Russian poet of a great Silver age Konstantin Balmont devoted to all meters the whole work.
Horei and Yamba, with their sound short, heard
Ya in murmur of streams,
I the pigeon the cooing mild
Taught me to music of words.
Shaking under wind, as in dancing as in fear,
Plakuchy branches of birches
gave Me the melodious size an amphibrach,
B it a waltz of the departing dreams. a dactyl I in a ring caught
I in march of soldiers - an anapaest.
my Melodic experience was since the childhood involuntary,
As tenderness on a face of brides.
Really, only the poet can compare an amphibrach to noise of birches and a waltz, a dactyl - to bell-ringing, and an anapaest - to march of soldiers. Whether the reader will hear the same?
Amphibrach. the Word came to us from Greek: combination of two words amphi “ from two parties “ + brachys “ short “. The graphic representation of this size it is + -. An average syllable shock, the first and third - unaccented. The Russian symbolists Alexander Blok and already mentioned Konstantin Balmont wrote with this size. But already during a Pushkin era the amphibrach was popular.
The amphibrach wrote K. Balmont`s poem placed at the beginning of article. And here A. Maykov`s poem:
Ah, the strange sky, it - to god, over This classical Rome,
Under the Such sky involuntarily the artist you will become.
the Nature and people here as if others, as though the pictures
From Bright verses of the anthology of Ancient Hellas.
To. Balmont in the article “ Russian “ gave such characteristic to an amphibrach: “ The Captivating size, in it is swing of an ancient waltz and sea wave. The shock syllable lead and accompanied with unaccented, moves so softly that fascinates by smoothness “.
The anapaest too from the Greek anapaistos, literally means “ reflected back “. Once this foot was called “ back struck “ because it is opposite to a dactyl. Still this size call an anti-dactyl. In Hellas when pronouncing anapestichesky verses performers danced, beating a leg time on a final syllable. The anapaest wrote Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov`s lines:
Not to wait to me, it is visible, freedoms.
A prison days as if years;
I a window is high over the earth,
A at a door is costed by the sentry.
This poem as well as possible approaches the description made by K. Balmont: “ The size full of gloomy expressiveness, the heavy and calculated blow. A verse as a hand with a sword which slowly rises, raises and strikes. Return face of a dactyl, return current of feelings “.
Well and the last trisyllabic size - a dactyl . Though it was also necessary to begin with it because in dactylic foot the accent falls on the first syllable.
If to the words “ anapaest “ and “ amphibrach “ we will hardly find cognate words in Russian, to the word “ dactyl “ there is at least one the word famous for much - “ dactyloscopy “. For those who suddenly forget word meaning, remind that the dactyloscopy is the section of criminalistics studying a structure of skin patterns of internal (palmar) surfaces of nail phalanxes of fingers of hands for identification of the personality, criminal registration and search of the criminal.
To guess a word meaning, besides Greek, daktylos is possible now. It is a finger. Why so called a meter, and what relation it has to a finger? Everything is very simple. The dactyl the structure reminds a finger which has three phalanxes, from them the big phalanx is equal on length to two short. (I too in this place long examined fingers).
And still the dactyl so struck hearing of Greeks that they, as usual, attributed the invention of this foot to god Dionysus who talked to people the verses constructed under laws of this poetic rhythm.
As an example - A. Fet`s verses:
A storm in the sky evening, Exhausting with
angry noise - Drilling
on the sea and thoughts,
is A lot of painful thoughts.
The most penetrating words were devoted to this size by K. Balmont: “ Three-syllabic slowness. The size is the most mysterious. The verse will look at you, and it seems that he looked at soul with a full look, both in a half-look, and in a quarter of a look. The song was sung, does not want the end yet, and is still sung, and everything does not want the end, and is finished singing. The Russian spirit which fell in love wide space in centuries, the geography so confused the history, loving the found new virgin soil, and already lasting to new that far away, and to new, had to fall in love in the speech with dactylic melodiousness, three-syllabic slowness “. (Balmont K. Where my house: Poems, prose, articles, sketches, letters. M, 1992).
These five sizes sillabo - tonic versification allow poets to work wonders by means of thought and the word.