What was invented by George Pulman except the well-known sleeper?
on March 3, 1831 in America George Mortimer Pulman (Pullman) was born. When many years later meticulous reporters in the same States and Europe tried to find out from where he, actually, is and in what family was born, George lovely smiled and spoke: “ Yes what, actually, difference? The main thing not where was born and that from you turned out! “
Probably, to Pulman was what to hide, but to us - the fact that before? It is enough know that by profession George was a cabinetmaker and if to consider that this specialty was “ elite “ and rather closed, passing often from the father to the son, it is possible to assume that the family at future inventor was working - country.
However which - what data on the early childhood of George everything is are available. As we also assumed, he was the third child in a family of the carpenter and cabinetmaker Lewis and the housewife Emily Carolina. The father with him was rather cool and all school education for George ended at once after the boy was 14 years old. “ In people! “ - Lewis demanded and his ordinary was sent by the ordinary clerk to the uncle`s bench.
But exerted much bigger impact on George everything - the father. His natural keenness and ability to find a way out from most would seem to a hopeless situation, became the guide for the son. One example: when the cabinetmaker Lewis Pulman moved with a family to the state New - York, he fast thought on what it is possible to make business: to transfer the buildings built on the low base on the marshland to higher level.
After death of the father George continued his business, having thought up such system of collectors which allowed to drain bogs along Erie channel. Started talking about it as about brainy small … Why it was switched by
from well organized construction business on railway - it is simple to guess. Working in Chicago, George often went to Albion, to visit a family. It was absolutely impossible to sleep in the cars this jingling, exhausting! On rigid trestle beds unless it was possible to accept horizontal position. And if to consider that trains often stopped on substations that passengers could have a bite somewhere, and parking borrowed to one and a half - two hours, it will become clear that George began to hate such life!
It presented the first sleeper in 1857. Of course, it was the prototype of what we got used today to. And later few years in common it concluded the contract with the Chicago company making sleepers with the partner Benjamin Fild. Then appeared “ highlight “ - convenient sofas for a seat which the easy movement of a hand turned into comfortable beds.
And all nothing and the burst Civil war in the USA followed ways of progress. But also it did not prevent Pulman to create salon in 1864 - the car which the inventor called is very proud - “ Pioneer “!
Perhaps, this invention would remain in the shadow, but in the evening on April 14, 1865 during visit of theater of Ford in Washington the actor J. Booth shot at the U.S. President Lincoln. The next morning Lincoln died, without regaining consciousness. And in order that the high-ranking officials did not feel even more broken during maintenance of ashes of the president to the place of its burial, in mourning structure was fastened “ Pioneer “. The bourgeoises spoiled by luxury appreciated Pulman`s child.
And at the beginning of 70 - x years George introduced still a big share of comfort to travel by rail. To reduce a way from a point And to a point In, without killing time in station buffet, Pulman suggested to cook food directly on wheels, in the special car which called a dining-car.
And now small lyrical digression. Which of us, in the childhood, did not hear or maybe sang, a song of a crocodile of Gena - “ The Blue car runs - shakes “. Why blue? Yes everything is simple - cars - salons for high-ranking officials in pre-revolutionary Russia for recognition were painted only in blue color. Who knows, maybe, and expression the prince of blue blood went from - for cars!
But we will return to Pulman. He was one of the first recognizable people who was not afraid of a word of mouth and married the black American who presented to it at first two daughters, and then and twins - sons. Perhaps, it is love? Goodness knows. But one small note: the lion`s share of employees at Pulman was made by the black who is recently released from slavery. Perhaps, it was the good populist course - the Afro-Americans worshipped the employer!
It the first based in Chicago “ the territory for compact accommodation of workers “ which was named right there Pulman - a town. It made 1500 hectares, and Pulman spent about 8 million dollars for constructions of housing. If to consider that at the same time the young conjurer Harry Gudini was happy with a salary in 10 dollars a week, it is possible to imagine scales.
It is interesting that at the beginning of the XX century at the international exhibition in Prague the inventor even received two medals and the diploma for creation “ the most perfect city on Earth “. But while the genius drank champagne instead of with the powers that be, residents of its town were not really - that are happy, bitterly joking supposedly we were born in the Pullman city, we work at Pullman plant, we buy food in Pullman shops and when we die, then we will end up in Pullman hell.
Do not think that George Mortimer Pulman was a such odd fellow - the good-natured person! " system; " sweat squeezings; he mastered very well. And a little “ revolts “ in it “ town “ - bright to that confirmation. In particular, in May, 1894 business reached bloodshed. And now let`s remember, than we are still obliged to Pulman? As a sign of support of the victims on May 1, 1894 the Labor Day began to be celebrated after a while. Or, as at us spoke in the USSR - the International Workers` Day.
Under the pressure of the public of the power undertook Pulman with all severity. Experiment on creation “ town “ it was recognized unsuccessful, and authorities of the state Illinois started with the inventor a lawsuit for the purpose of deprivation of his company of control over the settlement for workers.
Everything that fell down his head, the genius of car building did not transfer. He died on October 19, 1897 from heart attack.
And dining-cars and “ CB “ still plow open spaces of a world railway line!
Well than not the tale of the princess on a pea? But she, the poor thing, only sighed, and Pulman as the man active, put the thought into operation …