Rus Articles Journal

What is known of emeralds?

Delightful green stones always decorated with the gloss and beauty thrones and regalia of the most ancient imperial dynasties, and also were obligatory attribute on clothes of high priests. But also today, as well as in the past, emeralds are a symbol of wealth and the power.

Emeralds are usually appreciated more expensively than diamonds. It is considered to be that on value they concede only to rubies. And depending on quality the value of these stones is various. So, the emerald weight only in 3 grams can cost one million dollars!

First of all the value of emeralds is explained by the fact that it is very rare stones representing densely - a green, transparent kind of crystals of beryl in combination with aluminum and silicon. And a small amount of impurity of chrome or vanadium give to an emerald magnificent green coloring.

The Greek name of a stone - smaragdos comes, perhaps, from the Arab name of this semi-precious stone: tsamanut . Latin borrowed the Greek name and generated intermediate, medieval forms: esmeralde, emeraude and others. From here and Russian emerald .

almost only source of emeralds in the world was Many millennia Egypt. On the legendary mines of the queen Cleopatra intensive extraction of semi-precious stones was conducted since 330 BC at first by Egyptians, and then Romans and Turks. Work on the mines practically did not stop till 1237 AD

since the most ancient times emeralds attracted many people not only the beauty, but also magic and curative properties. There was a belief that by means of emeralds it was possible to influence female passion and ability to a child-bearing. It is no wonder that Egypt began to do brisk, profitable business which extended up to India.

The emerald described as a mystical stone is very often mentioned in literature of Europe, the Middle East. The data collected from various sources will help to understand its mystical properties to the reader.

An emerald - a mascot of mothers and seafarers. It grants pleasure and fun, sincere harmony and hope, a victory in fight, a step and generosity, talent and grace, eloquence without shadow of falseness and self-respect, an insight. It grants even ability of anticipation. The emerald keeps love, it becomes brighter when the love inflames in heart, and breaks up at violation of a vow of fidelity in love. It strengthens memory and constrains harmful passions. It was suspended at a bed headboard to banish bad dreams, to dispel melancholy.

It is considered that the istolchenny emerald cures eye diseases, epilepsy, leprosy, diseases of a stomach and a liver, helps against poison, in particular, of snake. In general, with snakes at an emerald the special relations: the Arab legend says that if to take this stone before a snake, from eyes at her it will be watered and the snake will go blind. Pliny Sr. wrote about an emerald: From all other jewels only this feeds a look without satiation. Even when eyes are tired with fixed consideration of other objects, they have a rest, being turned on this stone . Not Ron, according to the legend, looked at fights of gladiators through an emerald lens, (such lenses Pliny mentions).

However the emerald helps only pure, spiritually perfect person. False and angry it brings misfortune. And one more condition: that the emerald quite proved, the Moon arrangement in a horoscope of the one who carries it, has to be favorable.

The emerald is not connected with myths about gods of antiquity, but it plays a noticeable role in the history of religion. In India (where the emerald is known, at least, from a vremenisozdaniye Mahabharata ) believe that it carries out communication with the world of spirits, allows to read the past and the future in the mysterious depth of the green sides. According to the Indian magicians, the emerald possesses a strong positive prana which disseminates clots of evil thoughts. Perhaps, it explains - at the level of religious anthropology - mystical properties of an emerald.

And in Ioann`s Revelation there is a description of Heavenly Jerusalem. There it is told about twelve bases walls of a hail, decorated with semi-precious stones (Ioann`s Revelation. 21: 11 - 21). The fourth step of the basis of this Heavenly Jerusalem is noted smaragdy (tserkovno - the Slavic name of an emerald). Also in the antiquated book Outcome it is told about the list of twelve stones in the description of clothes of the high priest (the Outcome. 28: 17 - 20), one of which an emerald. According to the Bible, the order of an arrangement of stones, was specified by God to Moisey on Sinai and repeated in Iyezekil`s vision (Ezechiel. 28:13).

The monopoly of Egypt for emeralds remained until at the beginning of the 16th century the Spanish conquistadors did not subdue South America. In particular, so far Jimenez de Quessada did not win the territory in which modern Colombia is located. And in 1558 - the m in Muzo was found to year the mine on which very large and extremely quality emeralds were got.

Spaniards quickly took the mine under the management, having forced locals in the hardest conditions to extract semi-precious stones. In several years large emeralds practically without defects a stream rushed to Europe, many of them appeared in hands of Ottoman Turks, Persian shahs and even royal family in India subsequently.

Now production of emeralds is still a wearisome and hard work. And as at workers the temptation is big to take out secretly some semi-precious stone, almost on all mines there is an internal security service. The armed security guards watch closely how workers diligently dig and scrape.

But, despite all precautionary measures, according to experts, the most part of emeralds arrives to the world market in the illicit way. Around the world sale of the majority of emeralds is conducted in the so-called black market without any documents, without taxes, secretly, and, eventually, they completely disappear. Almost each high-quality emerald appears in hands of smugglers " sooner or later; - it is said in the " magazine; National Geographic .

As the emerald is very valuable, there were always speculators who tried to sell substandard stones and even fakes. Sometimes in the course of growth in crystals of an emerald the natural internal defects called by inclusions are formed. When such defects reach a stone surface, on it there are cracks which break polishing of a stone why to a large extent its value suffers.

But various handymen learned to hide these outer defects, immersing the cleared and polished stone in hot cedar or palm-oil. Under the influence of temperature air is expelled from cracks, and oil gets into them, skillfully hiding cracks. After such procedure stones are on sale at the highest price. However in a year or two oil evaporates, and defects are found again, horrifying buyers and bewilderment.

But, as if human greed and insidiousness did not sadden an image of one of the most beautiful semi-precious stones, emeralds all the same remain miracle of creation of the Nature.

Literature:

1. Bible (Outcome, Ezechiel, Ioann`s Revelation).

2. Jeweller Review November - 2004.

3. Sobchak N., Sobchak T. Encyclopedia of minerals and " jewels;.

4. " magazine; National Geographic .

5. Ancient history.

6. Big Soviet encyclopedia . 1978.