Who such Yazidi?
“ About God, help seventy two people of the world, help sufferers, those who in the foreign land, that who in wandering, that who in need, and in the end - help us! “ So every day, becoming facing the sun, Yazidi - not less than 3 - 5 times a day say the prayer.
- When our people learned the world, there were already 72 people, - the Yazidi spiritual figure, the editor-in-chief of the " newspaper says; Ezdikhana “ Hasan Tamoyan. - The number appearing in our prayer is also explained by it.
The historical homeland of Yazidi - Mesopotamia. They are considered as lineal descendants of ancient Babylonians. And their religion - the ezidizm - represents itself an echo of the drevnevavilonsky state religion tracing the roots back to depth of the millennia. By other assessment, the ezidizm resulted from mixture of the Sufi doctrine with pre-Islamic beliefs, and also with christian Gnostic teachings. Today Yazidi live, generally in Iraq, Turkey, Syria, also live in Russia, Georgia, Armenia, a number of the countries of Europe. Their total number is estimated approximately at 0,3 - 0,5 million people
By the standard definition, Yazidi represent separate group of Kurds. However they, as a rule, separate from Kurds - in the most of Muslims, - denying a community with them. There is no unity on this matter still. “ Nowadays at the international level Yazidi admit separate ethnoconfessional group, - the candidate of historical sciences Victoria Arakelova notes. - It is reached thanks to efforts of the Armenian orientalists, and not thanks to politicians and fighters for the rights of ethnic minorities at all. By the way, such recognition became an important factor of ensuring national security as took away serious threat to become the country with " from Armenia; Kurdish factor “.
An origin of the self-name of these people - “ Yazidi “ or “ Yazidi “ - still it is not found out up to the end. On one of versions, this word happens from Persian “ Yazd “ what means “ god “ (the scientific world inclines to this option). On another - on behalf of geniuses of good and light in the Zoroastrian doctrine. There is also a version about a word " origin; Yazidi “ on behalf of the Caliph Yazid, the son of the Caliph Moaviya. This version constructed on the accord is rejected by many. However it cost to Yazidi a lot of blood: the Caliph Yazid was a murderer of Hussein esteemed by Shiites, the son of the just Caliph Ali of ibn - Abu Tabiba so in the opinion of Shiites Yazidi bear responsibility for it.
However, despite everything, very few people undertake to challenge the fact that Yazidi - really one of the most ancient people of the world. The kept national originality, language, ceremonies, traditions, holidays. The main shrines of Yazidi are in Northern Iraq; the largest of them - Lalesha Nurani (“ presvetly “ or “ sacred “ Lalesh). Each Yazidi at least once in life is obliged to make pilgrimage there. That is Lalesh for Yazidi - the same that Jerusalem for Christians, Mecca for Muslims or the mountain Fujiyama for Shintos. In Lalesha there is a tomb of the founder and reformer of the Yazidi religion Sheikh of Adie of ibn - Muzaffara who lived and created in the XI-XII centuries of our era.
In the middle of December Yazidi celebrate one of the four main holidays - “ Aida of the Yazidi “ (Holiday of Yazidi). It is day of reconciliation. It by tradition falls on the second Friday of December. In preceding this day Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday the most strict post is observed: to sunset it is impossible is, neither to drink, nor to smoke. On Thursday evening confessors (sheikhs, feasts) and laymen (mrida) gather at the priest, sing religious anthems, dance. And on Friday visit compatriots at whom someone from relatives died recently.
A week later after “ Aida of the Yazidi “ comes “ Aida of Shams “ or Festival of the Sun. There are approximately same festivals and ceremonies. In February note “ Hydyr Nabi “. This name of an angel - the patron who helps execution of just desires of the person. Through it and with its assistance the granted divine command and a predestination is executed. Nabi patronizes lovers and reunites the loving hearts. In day of a holiday the youth eats salty flat cakes to dream about the promised. Here, perhaps, it is possible to see some parallels with the Armenian holiday of Saint Sargis which is also celebrated in February.
And year at Yazidi not in January as we got used, and in April begins (as at many ancient people). Arrival of New year coincides with the first main Yazidi holiday which is celebrated on the first Wednesday of April. It is connected with a name Mallak - Tavusa - the servant Boga acting directly at will of the Supreme God. Under the name of Mallak - Tavusa (the Tsar - the Peacock) esteem Ezrail as the highest among seven angels created by God; names of the others - Dzhibrail [Gabriel], Mikhail, Dirdail, Simkail, Ezazil [Azazel] and Esrafil [Rafail]. The tsar - the Peacock is considered as a fallen angel and identified with Christian Lucifer and the Muslim Shaitan. Therefore the next people began to perceive Yazidi as “ chertopoklonnik “. However Yazidi believe that at the end of Boga`s times will reconcile with the fallen angel. Therefore the religion of Yazidi most strictly forbids to damn the Satan. By the way, quite often to them for it strong got - besides that they are traditionally loyal to all religions. (Source: Wikipedia).
In the specified day Mallak - Tavus was sent by the Lord to the earth to transfer to Yazidi his precepts. On the eve of the woman`s holiday under the leadership of senior in a family bake big to Ghat (ritual round rich pie) in which bake a beads. Next day the head of the family distributes to Ghat to family members and relatives. Who will get a piece with a beads - the whole year will accompany that good luck. Besides, with April at Yazidi one more belief is connected: this month is considered “ bride “ all other months therefore in April it is forbidden to establish a family, to build the house, to dig the earth, to sow or change the residence.
Several tens of thousands of Yazidi live in Armenia now. Relationship of both people goes, as they say, to depth of centuries. And this relationship always was friendly. In due time the Yazidi who did not refuse the belief, too, as well as Armenians, underwent numerous deprivations, were forced to leave the historical homeland, escaping from prosecutions. And many of them settled in East Armenia.
Yazidi made the contribution to fight of the Armenian people for independence - as in 1918 - m when over the Armenian Republic threat of the Turkish aggression hung, and at the beginning of 1990 - x, in the years of military operations on armyano - the Azerbaijani border. Many Yazidi settlements strongly suffered from a destructive earthquake in Armenia in 1988. Having visited a disaster zone, the Soviet prime minister of that time - the minister Nikolay Ryzhkov advised the Yazidi who addressed it to move to Kuban. They listened to the recommendation, and in the next three years more than 5,5 thousand Yazidi moved to Krasnodar Krai. The housing was acquired mainly from the Crimean Tatars to whom at last was permitted to return to the Crimea.
Unfortunately, we, being put into words classics, are lazy and uninteresting. We to these are not informed properly even on own history. And we know even less about the ancient people living side by side with us which, despite all tests, managed to keep the shape and originality throughout the millennia too. And it whether you know, is worth a lot.
Remarkable fact: Yazidi adhere kastovo to this day - a theocratic society organization. Namely - only representatives of the same caste can marry with each other, and marriages with gentiles are forbidden at all. And the one who was born in a family of the priest can only become the priest. Yazidi consider themselves by the peculiar people, and this selectness is descended. Throughout all the history and till today they try to keep inviolable bases of the religion and religion. Partly for this reason at Yazidi few written versions of the Scripture: they were afraid that written documents and sacred texts can fall into hands of gentiles who can appropriate their religion, open sacrament of their ceremonies. History of the people, a basis of religion, a prayer, religious practices were transferred from generation to generation in an oral form.
Nevertheless, Hasan Tamoyan not quite agrees with the statement that the Yazidi people and manage to keep today all the traditions. “ Moving on the way of a civilization, Yazidi gradually lose them “ - he states.