What Athenians did not love Euripedes for?
Athenians did not love Euripedes`s . Seldom they awarded to it awards on theatrical competitions of playwrights in honor of god Dionysus, reproached him with depravity of the Athenian citizens plots of the tragedies, told about it ridiculous stories … The Athenian playwright Aristophanes, for example, brought Euripedes as the comic character nearly in every second comedy, wishing to prove to the viewer perversity and absurd of works of the playwright.
From Euripedes`s creativity (485/4 - 406 BC) reach our time 18 completely or almost completely remained plays: 17 tragedies (“ Alkesta “ “ Medea “ “ Geraklida “ “ Ippolit “ “ Andromakh “ “ Begging “ “ Gekuba “ “ Heracles “ “ Troyanki “ “ Iphigenia in Taurida “ “ Electra “ “ Elena “ “ Finikiyanki “ “ Ion “ “ Orest “ “ Bacchantes “ “ Iphigenia in Avlida “) and satirovsky drama “ Kiklop “. Once, however, attributed it the nineteenth play - the tragedy “ Res “ which and now often by tradition is published in complete collections of Euripedes; however scientists proved for a long time that this play belongs to the unknown author 4 centuries BC (that cannot but please, and that everything the fifth yes the fifth …). 18 plays are more, than from Eskhil and Sophocles combined. What is such strange contradiction explained by?
If Eskhil and Sophocles represented the heroes admiring citizens of Athens with the courage and fidelity to a moral duty, then their younger contemporary Euripedes represented people with all their passions and defects. The evripidovsky tragedy of human imperfection comes to change loftily - to heroic tone of classical plays of Eskhil and Sophocles. The playwright thinks of the person of weak and internally inconsistent creation in the hostile world surrounding it in which independent decisions of the hero lead it to sufferings, and the tragedy - to originally tragic final. Euripedes lowers the characters on the earth, opening for the theatrical viewer the world of low, even criminal passions.
So, for example, in the play “ Medea “ (431 BC) the author represents awful revenge of the sorcerer - wives to the traitor - the husband. The passionate, cruel heroine allocated with violent temperament incapable, like gods to forgive the offense caused her is the character, new to the Athenian theater. The crime was never shown to the audience so obviously and zrimo: murder by Medea of the children with Yason - in punishment to the husband for incorrectness - terrified the Athenian audience, generally familiar with a plot of the ancient myth. Euripedes sees female character inconsistent, changeable and entirely subordinated to the cruel passion breaking everything on the way. Probably, for this reason in ancient Athens liked to tell jokes about the difficult relations of Euripedes with women (allegedly both wives changed him).
In “ To Hippolyta “ (428 BC) the tragic and criminal love of the stepmother - Fedra, Theseus`s wife, - to the stepson Ippolit is represented. Innocent and pure soul Ippolit rejects Fedra`s harassments that forces it to slander the stepson from revenge. Fedra, as well as Medea, - the difficult character: the love passion is replaced by intolerable despair, fear of an inevitable shame here - desire to sweep. The goddess of love Aphrodite appears at Euripedes as the severe avenger who is cruelly punishing the main character - the attendant of a cult of the goddess - the virgin Artemis - for the disrespectful attitude towards sacrament of love. So the love at Euripedes becomes the blind force, a terrible image crippling life of the main characters.
Tragedy “ Heracles “ (apprx. 423 g BC) it is also devoted to a subject of divine revenge. This time before us - Heracles who made twelve feats and coming back home pursued by the main hater - the goddess Hera. Having sent madness on the son Zeus, she forces it to deal shortly with the children and the wife. The amazing strength of the art genius Euripedes was shown in the image of a scene of madness and the picture of despair of the main character grieving over the shame which followed it.
Euripedes his contemporaries - Athenians did not hurry to recognize great and in general treated his creativity enough crucially (so, for example, the trilogy with “ Medea “ won only the third - the last - the place on dionisiysky competitions). Euripedes spoke about internal passions of the person - and his plays, on the one hand, concerned and touched the shrill, pressing ispovedalnost, and therefore did not remain unnoticed, but at the same time and frightened, pushed away Athenians the rough penetration into the intimate world of feelings which was not so pure and noble as it seemed earlier.
According to the legend, the playwright was born in day of salaminsky fight (on October 5 480 BC) though it is possible that it is only an intellectual joke of the Greeks wishing to connect three great playwrights by one historical event (we will remember that Eskhil participated in fight, and young Sophocles sang in chorus in honor of conquering heroes). It grew in a family of the small trader at greens and to Athens got only after ruin of the father (who in punishment for debts underwent derision on the square where he was put at all on a view with a basket on the head).
Being rather educated person, Euripedes was fond of painting, communicated with prominent philosophers of that time - Socrates (told even that the great philosopher helped the playwright to write it to the tragedy), Protagory, Pro-wild, Anaksagory. Unlike predecessors, Euripedes never tried to appear on stage as the actor and gradually composes from himself the composer`s duties, saluting the composition of music to Timokrat Argossky; it is unknown, Euripedes or Timokrat possess the found fragment of music of the first “ stasima “ tragedies “ Orest “ (stasimy the song of chorus between " was called; episodiya “ - actor`s scenes), become the only escaped example of music of the Ancient Greek tragedy. However, the chorus in Euripedes`s tragedies loses the close connection with action development, being times only the passive contemplator of the taking place events: Euripedes in general loves monodiya more - songs of actors, - which at Sophocles appeared only incidentally.
Meanwhile Euripedes`s influence seriously affects style of representations of that time; dispute between the eskhilovsky actor Minnisk (stately and frostily playing supporting parts in Eskhil`s plays) and evripidovsky - Kallipid who was blamed by the first for the forced passion and impetuosity, a randomness and immoderation of gesticulation (according to Aristotle, Minnisk was called by Kallipida a monkey) is known.
Euripedes finished the days far from Athens - at court of the Macedonian tsar Archelaus where it was well accepted and recognized the great poet. There he communicated with outstanding artists of the time - the artist Zevksis, the musician Timofey, the drama poet Agathon who became his follower. Euripedes serving during lifetime by a favourite target for sneers and jokes, on the Athenian legends, had also unenviable death: it was torn to pieces - whether the dogs let by his haters, whether the women offended on it for their image in tragedies in an unattractive look.
Even after Euripedes`s death of his creation continue to shake the viewer. In “ Iphigenia in Avlida “ (after 408 BC, posthumous statement is carried out by the son of the playwright who was also called Euripedes) there are heart-breaking images of mother and her innocent daughter whom Greeks have to sacrifice to gods for the sake of mobilization of the Hellenic army, ready to Trojan war. The strongest and internally integral character of the tragedy just the victim - Iphigenia, meanwhile looks as characters - men are shown fluctuating and indecisive.
“ Bacchantes “ (posthumous statement in one day with “ Iphigenia in Avlida “) - the only remained tragedy of theater of ancient Athens where action is connected with dionisiysky subject. At the heart of a plot - the bloody revenge of the offended god Dionysus to the fivansky tsar Penfey provoked by the disrespectful relation of the tsar to a bacchanal cult. Again invasion of gods destroys fragile harmony of the human relations: Penfey`s mother struck with madness, the bacchante Agava tears off the head to the son, having taken it for a lion. In the final before us - despair of mother shaken by the crime committed by her. The passion to archaic spontaneity characteristic of other plays of Euripedes reaches the apogee here. The shaken audience gave to the trilogy (the third play did not remain) the late playwright the first place - it was one of not numerous victories of Euripedes.
Euripedes`s influence will become defining for development of ancient theater soon: attention to intimate human experiences (German Schelling will tell then that “ Euripedes represents beauty temporary and passing “) there will be closer to readers of the subsequent times, than civil ideals of his predecessors. In effect, all development of the Greek and Roman dramatic art about 4 centuries BC went under undoubted influence of Euripedes - and Eskhil and Sophocles`s traditions are esteemed as the leaving antiquity. For this reason efforts of scientists - grammatik from the Alexandria library from evripidovsky creativity for us kept much more plays, than from Eskhil and Sophocles. The Greeks who underestimated Euripedes during lifetime extolled it after death as most great playwright of Hellas.