Whether it is bad to be the petty bourgeois?
Word “ petty bourgeois “ for years of the Soviet power got resistant negative sense, became nominal. For example, brothers Strugatsky characterize the petty bourgeois as individualist, the egoist happy with and always the fool, self-assured, inaccessible for ideas; it is lazy intellectually, sure that the meaning of life consists in pleasures and entertainments, and work is only means to getting of money and glories. A. M. Gorky notices: “ one of properties of petty-bourgeois soul - servility, a rabya a worship for authorities “. Big Soviet encyclopedia: “ petty bourgeoises call people to whose views and behavior egoism and individualism, money-making, political apathy, lack of principles " are peculiar;.
So who such petty bourgeoises? In the explanatory dictionary of Dahl the following definition is given: “ the petty bourgeois - the citizen of the lowest category who is consisting in a subear salary and subject to a soldatstvo; also the handicraftsmen who are not written down in merchants " belong to number of petty bourgeoises;; according to Efremova`s dictionary petty bourgeoises - “ the city estate which is mainly consisting of small traders, handicraftsmen, the lowest employees, etc. in the Russian state till 1917 “
On “ To the Appointed diploma to the cities “ (1785) name “ petty bourgeoises “ had three values: 1) policemen inhabitants, 2) neutral gender people (“ a neutral gender of people or petty bourgeoises the name is a consequence of diligence or decency, than and got an excellent state “) 3) small traders and handicraftsmen.
In Ukrainian, Polish, Belarusian remained Slavic “ place “ “ myasto “ - “ city “. From here also the name of estate " went; petty bourgeois “ - citizen. Narrow-mindedness originates from posadsky (residents of the cities and posads) the Moscow Russia, generally - small handicraftsmen and dealers. Being the main payers of taxes and taxes, petty bourgeoises, along with merchants, belonged to the category “ correct city inhabitants “: “ It is possible to carry a personal responsibility, call of duty in family life To number of the traditional petty-bourgeois values making a basis of mentality of average city layers, respect for work, honoring of seniors on age, religiousness. They appreciated work not only as a source of means of livelihood, but also as an opportunity to help the relatives, neighbors. Adoption of orphans, almsgiving were usual in the petty-bourgeois environment. The expression which was widely used earlier “ petty-bourgeois " style; characterized a complex of the esthetic views inherent in bulk of narrow-mindedness “. (Shreyder G. I., the City and the Gorodovy provision of 1870//History of Russia in the 19th century. T. 4. SPb., 1908 - 1909).
The organization of estates at Peter I when all city inhabitants became formation of estate of petty bourgeoises (“ regular citizens “) received the general name “ petty bourgeoises “. Belonging to narrow-mindedness was made out by record in the policeman to the narrow-minded book. The rank of the petty bourgeois was hereditary and hereditary. Petty bourgeoises according to regulations of the Main magistrate of 1721 were divided into two guilds and shops. Bankers, notable merchants were carried to the first guild (“ guests “) city doctors, druggists, doctors, skippers of the merchant ships, jewelers, iconics and painters; to the second - all those, “ which trade in petty goods and harchevy rare supplies, and also rukomeslenny: carvers, turners, joiners, tailors, shoemakers and to them similar “. The handicraftsmen who were a part of the second guild were subdivided, in turn, into the shops created on professional accessory.
Final registration of petty-bourgeois estate happens by Catherine II`s legalizations concerning management of the cities. On July 30, 1767 by Ekaterina the Second it was instructed the Commission about the composition of the draft of the New Code. Chapter 16 is called: “ About a neutral gender of people “. In article it is told: “ Petty bourgeoises who practise in crafts, in trade, in arts and sciences live In the cities. This kind of people about which it is necessary to speak, and from which a lot of good expects the state if firm on decency and encouragement to diligence the based situation receives, is average. It, using a liberty, it is not ranked neither as the nobility, nor as plowmen. To this kind of people prichest owes all which, not byv the nobleman, the plowman, practise in arts, in sciences, in navigation, in trade and crafts “. Any city dweller who had immovable property in the city could register in petty bourgeoises, was engaged in trade or craft, paid taxes and executed public services.
Apparently from all above, the petty bourgeois - the respectable, law-abiding and hard-working person, middle class, a basis Russian and any other, statehood (in 1811 in Russia there were 949,9 thousand petty bourgeoises that made 35% of urban population, in 1897 - 7449,3 thousand (44%)). For what Councils so took a dislike to petty bourgeoises? Revolutionary movement in Russia noblemen directed first of all (V. Ulyanov, F. Dzerzhinsky, G. Plekhanov and others); people are educated, they perfectly understood value of middle class. To carry away revolutionary movement of the people appreciating stability - a task unreal. And to overthrow a system, without having broken and without having broken middle class, it is impossible. For this reason right after proletarian revolution of 1917 not only physical, but also moral destruction of narrow-mindedness as class as mentality began. I think, not the last role in this destruction was played also by noble snobbery in relation to “ to the lowest estate “.
After collapse of the USSR our many compatriots started searching for noble roots; to fashionable “ blue " blood; also those whose ancestors were peasants, petty bourgeoises or merchants stuck much. And I am proud of the petty-bourgeois roots: my long ago died relatives were workmen, fishermen, seamen - people on whose shoulders kept and still Russia keeps!