Who thought up chocolate?
Chocolate and cup of fragrant black coffee … M - m - m … As it is pleasant! And in the morning … m - m - m! Developing a silvery foil, you do not reflect at all that history of chocolate goes to the extreme antiquity.
Approximately for 1500 B.C. in lowlands on the bank of the Gulf of Mexico in America there was a civilization of Olmecs. This culture presented us the name “ " cocoa;. It sounded as “ kakawa “. Notice that for so long time in the name only several letters changed.
Olmecs were succeeded by the Maya civilization. Maya also laid the foundation of cultivation of cocoa - a tree. Maya used chocolate in the form of drink: the fried cocoa - beans which in itself have bitter taste mixed up with cold water, and then added a carnation or chili pepper to this mix. And still very long chocolate was only drink.
However, there is an opinion that drink of gods was invented at all not by the Maya, but Aztecs. For the emperor Montezuma they cooked drink chokolatl (“ xocolatl “ - “ bitter " water;) . The pounded grains of dairy corn, honey, vanilla and sweet juice of an agave were a highlight of the recipe of Aztecs. Drink was considered as sacred, only the elite could drink it: fathers of the tribe, their confidants, priests and the most worthy soldiers.
Aztecs so appreciated chocolate that even cocoa - beans used as money. For one hundred it was possible to get the slave, the fresh-caught crab as much cost, and it was possible to use services of the woman of easy virtue for six grains of cocoa.
Christopher Columbus was the first European who opened the nutritious and curative force of cocoa - beans. In 1502 he received them as a gift from inhabitants of the island Guanazha. But nobody paid on them special attention in view of a large number of the other treasures brought by Columbus. There is a version that the traveler forgot some important part of the recipe, and focus was not successful.
In 1517 to Mexico there arrives Spaniard Hernan Cortes. Aztecs take it for the come-back god Ketsalkoatl. For this reason Montezuma presented to Cortes as a gift sacred beans. On an ancient legend, god Ketsalkoatl put the first garden from these trees that people could make the drink giving wisdom and strength. Cortes`s plans also were grandiose: to conquer Mexico. And still Cortes defined for himself: “ chokolatl “ will help to gain to it excellent foothold in the homeland. And Cortes was not mistaken.
Chocolate was a real discovery for Spain. Spaniards in the most strict secret kept the recipe of drink a secret and did not hurry to extend chocolate out of borders of the country. Besides, volumes of deliveries of cocoa - beans did not allow to make it.
What was done with cocoa - beans Spaniards is already closer to that chocolate which is known to us. The Spanish chocolate included cinnamon, a nutmeg and sugar, and pepper was tried to be excluded, on the contrary. Besides drink was served hot now. These changes appeared to chocolate on advantage. But long to conceal this surprising drink it was impossible.
In the next 100 years after Columbus chocolate appeared also in Europe. Costing 10 - 15 shillings for pound, chocolate was considered as drink for the high society. This tasty exotic drink won hearts Italian, Austrian and, at last, after a wedding of Anna Avstriyskaya and the king Louis XIV of the German aristocracy.
So far chocolate remained bitter, on it looked rather as at medicine, than as at a delicacy. Quite often it was also sold in drugstores. So, Christoffer Ludwig Hoffman recommended chocolate as means against many diseases, referring to experience of treatment of the cardinal Richelieu.
Two more centuries that chocolate developed a modern form, a taste and availability were required. All most interesting and important happened to it in the 19th century. At first the hydraulic press by means of which of cocoa - beans it became possible to extend cocoa - oil was invented, reducing bitterness of chocolate. Then Englishman Joseph Frei cast the first chocolate tile from cocoa - the oil mixed with sugar. In 1876 - m Danielle Petter`s Swiss added to cocoa weight powdered milk and received milk chocolate. Milk chocolate was christened in a trice Swiss, and now Daniel Petter`s homeland is proud of it at all not less, than cheeses, hours and banks. Here only the name of the creator to very few people is known - history instead of it was become by the pharmacist Henry of Nestle.
Very much managed to build the empire on popularity of chocolate. Amedee Coler became famous, having invented the recipe of nut chocolate in 1867. In 1867 Swiss Jean Tobler invented soluble chocolate. Rudolf Lindt made specialty fondat chocolate which melted in the mouth. American Milton Hershi in 1893 built the whole city of Hershey which residents only also were engaged in that that did sweets. In 1905 Kedberi`s brothers began to let out Dairy Milk chocolate with gentle and saturated creamy taste which could compete with Swiss.
Practically in at one time with the European also the most known Russian chocolate companies were founded: “ " Babayevo Concern; “ Red October “ “ of Krupskaya “ “ Rotfront “. In Russia, by the way, the first began to flavor chocolate with liqueurs, cognacs, almonds, raisin or candied fruits.
Chocolate will never get out of fashion, and in the future centuries it will remain weakness of many people.