How it is correct to gather mushrooms?
Came summer - a season of holidays, dachas, and mushroom pickers. Who does not like to regale on fresh mushrooms, just collected with own hand? Therefore I decided to tell the beginning mushroom pickers as it is correct to do it. To skilled people will not prevent to refresh simple rules in memory too.
- It is necessary to go for mushrooms early in the morning. If yours “ early morning “ - 10 hours, mean you not the mushroom picker. The most convenient time for a sboka of mushrooms - 6 o`clock in the morning, as a last resort 7.
- the Most favorable weather for emergence of mushrooms is a warm rain at the sun. That is, if since evening there was a small warm rain, means in the morning for certain there will be a good harvest.
- you do not know - do not take a mushroom. At any slightest suspicion just it is better to leave a mushroom in the wood. You remember, life is more expensive.
- is the best of all to gather mushrooms in baskets from willow rods or in bast baskets from birch bark. In cellophane bags and buckets they quickly spoil from - for lack of an exchange of air.
- At all do not take already begun to rot mushrooms. Even if to remove rotten part, flavoring and useful qualities of a mushroom can suffer.
- the Overripe and soft mushrooms, and also worm-eaten mushrooms too you should not take.
Gathering mushrooms, especially such valuable as white and others, never break off a moss, do not break out a leg together with a mycelium. On the dug-up places the naked mycelium which grew 10 years under beams of the sun will dry and will die. Mushrooms will not be neither this year, nor in the following.
It is impossible to eat unknown mushrooms, poisonous can occur among them. First of all it is necessary to carry several species of lamellar mushrooms to this group: a pale toadstool, fly agarics (red, panterny, poisonous), false a honey agaric (a chamois - yellow and kirpichno - red), entoly gray poisonous. From tubular mushrooms the devilish mushroom is poisonous. The alkaloid which is contained in a red fly agaric muskarin in a dose 0,8 grams and the most dangerous toxic agents falloidin and amanitin, 0,02 - 0,03 grams which are contained in a pale toadstool, in a dose - are deadly to the person!
Exist so-called “ inedible mushrooms “. They are not poisonous, and only possess unpleasant taste or a smell. It is, for example, a bilious mushroom, chanterelle false, a boletus inedible, a blewits mouse, earthy, fibrous and some other. It is possible to distinguish them on taste, but I would not advise you it to do. It is better to get accustomed attentively if the mushroom is similar to itself a little, means - inedible. Especially false chanterelles are a little similar to the edible fellows.
Some edible fungi contain bitter or even toxic agents which collapse or washed away after the corresponding processing. Such mushrooms are called “ conditionally edible “. Treat them a svinushka thin, a coral milky cap pink, some types of russulas. It is necessary to boil them surely 7 - 10 minutes, to pour out broth, and to wash out mushrooms in flowing water. After such processing they are quite suitable for food, and many even possess very pleasant taste.
On the structure mushrooms are close to meat and therefore they are called sometimes “ forest " meat;. On the chemical composition they are close to vegetables, and in amino-acid are similar to products of an animal origin. It is necessary to remember that mushrooms - heavy food therefore for once it is not necessary to eat more than 200 grams of fresh or 100 grams of salty or 20 grams of dried mushrooms.
On a nutrition value mushrooms can be divided into four categories: the first - cepe, a saffron milk cap and a milk mushroom real; the second - mushrooms of average quality (an aspen mushroom, a birch mushroom, a slippery jack, bruise); the third - mossiness mushrooms, russulas, chanterelles, a honey agaric; the fourth - invaluable mushrooms (some types of russulas, a coral milky cap pink, a svinushka thin, a honey agaric summer and others).
The most universal way of preparation of mushrooms following:
- To clear each mushroom of the earth, needles, leaves and to put in the container with clear water.
- to Wash out mushrooms in this water then water to merge and wash out mushrooms once again under flowing water.
- to Fill in fresh water and to put mushrooms on fire if there are at least slightest doubts as the gathered mushrooms after water begins to boil and you will remove foam, water again to merge.
- to Fill in new water, again to put on fire. - to Cook
to full readiness (it is possible to find in the reference book on each species of mushrooms).
- After mushrooms will cook, they can be fried, pickled, salted and in general to do everything that you want.
- the Only mushroom from which it is necessary to tear off a thin skin is a slippery jack. One of the most tasty, in my opinion, mushrooms.
Fried mushrooms can be reserved for the whole winter. Well-done, without onions and spices mushrooms densely stack in a glass jar and fill in with melted butter, oil will stiffen, and in it all preservation consists. To keep in the cool place until the use. Bon appetit!