What is the needle and how to build them? Present
: snowstorm. Prickly, angry. Darkens. A snow-covered field in some backwoods. And in the middle of this field - you. Got lost. What to do? To shoot in the air? (There is no gun, cartridges came to an end.) To kindle a fire? (The field naked and matches dampened.) To bury during snow how some hunters advise? (Snow cold and artful.) To construct a lodge how it is done by Eskimos on Alaska? Yes! But to know still as …
the Needle - so is called the Eskimo hut constructed of snow. It is a dome in the human growth consisting of snow blocks and supplied low sawn through “ door “. The needle, perhaps, can be compared to the haycock adapted for spending the night. Inside a needle it is romantic, cozy and warm too. To warm air inside, without trifling own heat, one small candle suffices. Eskimos are able to do the whole villages of snow, using one needle as housing, others - as utility rooms. It is known that a needle the Finnish snipers and mountain the huntsman of the German Wehrmacht were trained in skills of construction. Defending heights, they easily did a frost by the ally.
It is much warmer and safer to sleep in a needle, than in tent. The snow dwelling can save the traveler from any bad weather, will sustain both a blizzard, and a snow snow-storm. On winter fishing it is possible to arrange such hut directly on river ice, over a hole where the most fat and fat fish winters. If in the middle of winter to make a needle in the wood, it will stay until the end of March.
Build a needle as follows: at first select the flat platform with dense and deep snow. Then outline a circle on which the first layer of snow bricks will keep within. Diameter a needle on one person is equal to about 2,5 m. It is the best of all to cut blocks 50 - 60 cm long, 40 - 50 cm wide, 10 cm thick. The weight of one block - from 20 to 40 kg, and to take the block, cut it from two parties approximately on 10 cm and, having brought a shovel or a knife under the basis, shake. In the absence of a shovel or a knife it is possible to use a metal buckle from a zone belt. It, of course, will complicate work and a lot of extra time will demand, but nevertheless will give the chance to construct some primitive shelter.
Cracks between the laid blocks rub clean snow. When laying ranks each subsequent row keeps within with a small inclination that as a result the hut turned out with more - less correct dome.
At first sight all it seems simply. Cut out a hacksaw blocks from snow and make at each other round. But construction a needle has also the secrets. In - the first, alone you will not construct a needle. In - the second, the next blocks should not adjoin bottom corners - otherwise the snow house will fail. In the lower part of a joint of the next blocks it is better to leave a small triangular opening which will be easy to be closed up then. Vertical joints of the next blocks should not coincide. Several coincided joints turn in long, from a floor to a ceiling, the crack cutting a dome in half. It is not recommended to move the snow block installed on a wall forward yet - back as it will be erased and will get out of an initial shape. The block is better to put time, and then to cut strongly acting parts.
It is the most difficult to make the arch. Correctly constructed a needle is, speaking language of geometr, “ infinite ellipsoid “.
At some skills it is possible to construct a snow hut in 2 - 3 hours. And without those (a trial and error method or without knife and a shovel) - in 4 - 5 hours.
That it was easier breathed, in a dome the air vent makes the way. Opposite to this opening arrange a stove bench from snow blocks. And in the last turn in the snow house the door is cut out. And, it is done by the person who is constantly during construction inside a needle. It - that also starts all inside!
It is curious that to compete in construction Eskimo the needle is very much loved abroad - Canadians and Finns, for example. The aspiration of the West to the maximum comfort in work affected and here. Simple hacksaw “ to capitalists “ it is uninteresting. They prefer to use so-called IceBox Igloo Tool. That is, a tool kit for construction a needle. The case is supplied measuring with both fastenings, and even a special frame for expression of snow bricks. Even friable snow is used - it is easily stamped in a frame. There is this piece hundred eighty dollars, the laser disk with video lessons is applied to it. Came, opened a small suitcase - and work. Distributors claim that this most “ aysboks “ accelerates work almost twice.
In Russia such competitions - a rarity. In this regard my hometown of Tomsk - the leader. Competitions “ Gold needle “ and “ Silver needle “ already 10 years are annually spent in Tomsk.
Construction a needle - not just active recreation. It is romanticism of the North, it is one of ancient skills of art to survive. Only think how it is healthy: to get into the close, but very cozy hut from snow made with own hands. Groaning and pushing each other elbows, to pour the dense smoking tea from a thermos … And then, burning lips and fingers about the sweating mug, to plunge into dreams: “ Here we, courageous and brave … Here ours a needle, the dearest, most reliable place on the earth. And around - darkness, a blizzard, hundreds of kilometers of snow, and not a soul … “ Romanticism!
Well, a needle it is ready. Speak if to wait for twilight and to light a candle in a needle, then all lodge will play in millions of sparks. The polar traveler Rasmussen (not to confuse to Amundsen) called a needle “ the temple of solar pleasure among white silence of the desert “.