What is a laminate?
a symbol of material well-being were In due time existence in the house of a parquet floor. And not only in the former Soviet Union, but also on “ the rotting West “. The parquet from a natural tree represents strong, durable and that is important, a beautiful covering.
However laying of a parquet is pleasure expensive and labor-consuming. It became the reason that about a quarter of the century back the Swedish firm Perstorp Flooring AB developed the production technology of more economic type of floors - the laminated covering.
Since the laminate (laminate - English, layered material) for the first time was issued, technology of its production changed, its quality improved, cost decreased. Now the laminate represents material which has the characteristics surpassing characteristics of materials from a natural tree - it iznosostoyek, it can be washed not only water, but also acetone, he is almost not afraid of an ultraviolet, does not fade, has good thermal stability.
The laminated floor panel represents composite (compound) material which consists at least of four layers.
The center forms the bearing basis. Its technical characteristics provide quality of a covering. It is made of special wood-fiber material. If the laminate is marked as HDF (High Density Fiberboard), it shows that the basis of the bearing panel is made of a plate with a density more than 800 kg/CBM. The density is higher, the mechanical durability of a plate is higher.
From above the basis is pasted over with paper with the image of texture of a tree, a stone, a tile or other materials is the person of a covering. For protection of this layer against damages, fading, deformation and the fallen stubs it is impregnated with melamine or acrylic resin. If the producer added aluminum dioxide crystals to pitch, then wear resistance of a covering will only increase.
Under the bearing layer the layer of a thick naparafinenny cardboard (0,5 - 0,8 mm) or plasticity is located. Its task - to counterbalance the bending tension of a basis and not to allow moisture penetration inside a laminate - panels.
If a covering not the cheapest, then, perhaps, is present from below an acoustical blanket. In that case the buyer should not cover before laying of a laminate a floor a sound-absorbing polymeric film.
The standard sizes a laminate - panels, per se, no. But usually they are made by 190 in size - 300 mm in width and from 1180 to 2000 mm in length. Height varies depending on brand, the producer, quantity and thickness of layers - from 5 to 12 mm.
Make a laminate in two ways: HPL (High Pressure Laminate, laminate of a high pressure) and DPL (Direct Pressure Laminate, laminate of direct pressure).
In the first case all operations are carried out under big pressure. As a result the heavy-duty covering steady against big loadings on which producers give a guarantee of 20 and more years turns out. In the second case the panel is pressed and stuck together at the same time. Wear resistance of such covering is slightly lower (as well as the price). A guarantee for such laminate - 10 - 15 years.
The laminated covering is not beaten to a floor and not pasted. It keeps in the necessary situation under a body weight. But at the same time it is necessary to know that there are two types of fastening of panels of a laminate among themselves: glue and beskleevy.
In the first way as it is already visible from its name, for a fastening of panels use special glue (and the mass of extras). The way is rather difficult from the technological point of view and demands a certain professionalism therefore it is not recommended to stack such floors independently (if only you are not a professional in this case).
The second way is much simpler. Panels are joined with each other by means of a special design of a thorn and a groove on the UNICLIC system (it is read as “ uni - click “) which was developed in the Belgian firm UNILIN DECOR. At the same time only existence of a saw for undercutting of panels and desire to lay a new floor is required.
Advantage of the second type of laying is that installation of a floor occupies time minimum, the minimum of forces is spent for it, a floor is ready at once after the end of laying and so forth. By the way, when moving to other house it is possible to take away with itself and a floor.
Both when pasting, and at simple laying of a laminate it is necessary to have an equal and smooth basis for this purpose. For example, it is possible to make a draft floor of DVP or a chipboard, having laid them on a coupler from cement. After you were convinced that a floor equal (roughnesses no more than 2 mm on square meter are allowed), it is necessary to lay a sound-absorbing film (if on a laminate - plates there is no layer - a sound absorber). Its existence is obligatory as the film extinguishes noise of steps and hides insignificant roughnesses.
Instead of a film from the made foam polyethylene it is possible to use a stopper - it will provide and warmly - and a noise isolation. It is environmentally friendly and safe material. However, and more expensive.
On loading classes laminates are divided into several groups. Each group has the number consisting of two figures. The first specifies room type (2 - the house, 3 - the public building), and the second - loading level (1 - minimum, 2 - average, 3 - big). For example, class “ 21 “ means “ for house use in the room with the minimum loading “ (bedroom or office), and class “ 32 “ - “ for the public place with average loading “ (class, office or reception). Upon purchase it is necessary to consider this parameter, otherwise, having bought class " plates; 21 “ for office, you will be forced to replace them soon.
The main advantage of a laminatny floor - simplicity in leaving. Enough damp is simple to vacuum or wipe it (not wet!) rag. In case of the hardly removed spots it is possible to use acetone. If the plate was scratched, then it can be replaced with another or to paint over tsarapinka a special pencil.
And last council. Upon purchase of a laminate take at 5% of plates more (on the area) if you want to put a floor along or across the room. Or is 15% more if a floor keeps within on diagonal. Plus of another 5% for emergency, on a case of replacement of panels.
Actually, all. Use on health. Good luck!