What contributes to dependence development?
Risk factors are signs which existence does a possibility of the systematic use of the stupefying substances (drugs, alcohol, toxic preparations) to more probable. These factors are divided into three groups: biological (caused by features of an organism and those the majority), psychological caused by a warehouse of character and the relations) and social (a consequence of influence of society).
1. Mental disorders. by
Not less than at 10% of persons with mental deviations note signs of abuse of the stupefying substances. Most it concerns so-called organic frustration (a consequence patrimonial and cherepno - brain injuries, infections, other external vrednost), psikhopatiya - defects of character, and intellectual backwardness (mental retardation). Dependence can allow to support the satisfactory level of mental comfort with simultaneous disappearance or weakening of painful manifestations (symptoms), normalization of a self-assessment, overcoming of problems in communication. Alcohol, and also medicines with not medical purpose is mainly taken. The use of drugs for mentally sick is atypical.
2. Male. with
In all researches emphasizes prevalence of the men suffering from dependence over women.
can explain It with a variety of reasons:
- is naive - psychological myths (long since in Russia ability to drink infinite amount of alcohol was one of criteria of man`s force);
- public stereotypes of polorolevy behavior (binge after work, receiving a salary, in days off and during joint leisure);
- bigger thirst of males for receiving and assimilation of new impressions;
- the attitude towards own health and even life supported by many public institutes and mass media indifferent with a bravado shade for men.
these stereotypes are acquired Presently in even more exaggerated level, and the place of traditional alcohol in them is quite often taken by drugs and other toxic substances. It is possible to give the following as examples: in public consciousness soccer quite often causes direct associations with the beer use, fishing - vodka, modern dances - with consumption of stimulators and smoking of hashish.
3. Abnormal education. abnormal does not satisfy
as opposed to harmonious education in a full family to these indicators or on structure of the bringing-up persons, or on emotionally - semantic fullness and degree of satisfaction of needs of the child. Means:
- as most frequent meeting - education in an incomplete family;
- destructive (mutilating) options of education, for example neglect and rejection as lack of the passed-on positive experience and high risk of early acquisition of asocial stereotypes. Often meet in incomplete families, in the presence of mentally sick and dependent parents, and also at education in orphan establishments.
4. Hereditary otyagoshchennost alcoholism.
Along with direct genetic predisposition the child since early years acquires the destructive stereotypes of behavior and world outlook norms accepted in a family. The hereditary otyagoshchennost the use of drugs, apparently, is even more catastrophic.
5. Personal type (character warehouse).
Comes to light during conversation or when carrying out psychological testing. The following types are most predisposed:
- the Unstable (dissotsialny) personality with not created circle of values, absence of aspiration to work and thirst for empty pastime. Typical satellites of this type - falsity and absence of feelings of obligation, compassion. The shame and repentance are expressed in the minimum degree. Teenage and youth groups usually play a role of conducted, legkopoddatsya to foreign influence. Are almost incapable of leadership and an initiative. Bad progress, truancies, escapes from the house, animals abuse are typical for the children`s period, and then - younger and weak. Images of these persons are easily learned in types of bandits and villains of all colors and the historical periods (from pirates from “ Treasure islands “ to the Blotter from the movie “ The Meeting place cannot be changed “) .
- Emotionally unstable (excitable) personality with tendency to impulsive behavior without its consequences, a tendency to the conflicts and quarrels increased by the aggression level, unpredictable mood. As a rule, at good social orientation and even to aspiration to leadership they have no interest in study and work (that contributes to achievement of the prestigious purposes with illegal methods). The feeling of internal emptiness and boredom generates tendency to the changed conditions of consciousness reached by means of the stupefying substances or extreme activity (cruelty, vandalism, religious and racial fanaticism). A classical example - P. Rogozhin from “ Idiot “.
6. Violations of behavior at teenage age.
Traditional for the teenage period emergence of a number of reactions is considered: emancipation (opposition of to seniors), a hobby - reactions (hobby), grouping with peers, the reactions caused by the formed sexual inclination. They form a typical image of the representative of younger generation in which mutually exclusive lines are combined: high self-esteem and uncertainty in, refusal of the standard norms and idealization of idols, obstinacy and suggestibility. The typical conflict of such personality - “ to be as everything, having allocated “. As signs of pathological teenage reactions it is possible to consider:
- generalization (reaction calling not always adequate incentives), for example grouping only with asocial persons or aspiration to sexual actions always interfaced to violence;
- stereotypification (monotony of manifestations on the " type; cliche “) for example pastime only with joint use of substances without communication in a sober state;
- excess of the average threshold accepted in this social group (for example, continuous fights and skirmishes with inhabitants of other territorial education).
7. Education level.
the Dependent behavior meets at persons with low education level more often (many persons described above not always seize also an average).
8. Professional accessory. does not have
For dependent persons a typical profession, more they are distinguished by work with decrease in initially being available qualification (unqualified, seasonal or rotational labor) and “ horizontal migration “ - frequent change of places of work with search of the collectives which are positive to the use of the stupefying substances.
9. Accommodation conditions. accommodation in unsatisfactory conditions (communal flats, hostels) or lack of own housing including owing to its loss is more typical
For persons with manifestations of dependence (financial crash, are long, criminal actions).
10. Conflicts with the law. with
Dependent behavior impregnated criminal subculture.
12. Postponed cherepno - brain injuries.
When imposing dependence on the brain soil changed by a trauma abuse proceeds more zlokachestvenno.
13. The postponed heavy infections.
Mainly it is about socially - significant infections (tuberculosis and hematogenic forms of hepatitises, venereal diseases).
are able to afford to obtain the Obtained data typical “ nuclear “ a profile inclined to abuse of the stupefying substances. This is mentally unbalanced or unhealthy, living in a communal flat or the hostel man with low education level working at low-skill work or the unemployed having a hereditary otyagoshchennost alcoholism and who was brought up in the conditions of neglect or rejection it is frequent - in an incomplete family. At teenage age behavioural violations up to the conflicts with the law against emotionally excitable or unstable personal type are typical for it. In the history of life are frequent cherepno - brain injuries and (or) serious infectious diseases. Remote from it, “ regional “ cases conceal in themselves smaller risk of development of dependence and its more favorable forecast in case of smaller quantity of factors.
And in general the person is dependent in principle. Remember the very first question which the Great Inquisitor from “ Brothers Karamazov “ describes a condition of the person: “ Whom to admire? “ So if to admire - that so that it did well to us and our relatives.