Rus Articles Journal

When in theater the third actor appeared? Once Eskhil entered

into the tragedy of the second actor - a devteragonist thanks to what there was a drama dialogue. His great younger contemporary Sophocles thought up a tritagonist - the third actor that gave to the Greek drama big dynamism; the tritagonist usually played several roles, from time to time appearing on a scene in different masks and suits. The Greek tragedy did not know the bigger number of actors for all history of its existence.

In late tragedies of Eskhil the chorus consists of 12 people. Sophocles increased structure of tragic chorus from 12 to 15 people. Attribute it creation of some pieces of theatrical properties - a curved staff and white sandals for actors and chorus - buskins. He, according to Greeks, thought up also theatrical sceneries, having strengthened them on the skena - wooden, and then and the stone tent standing behind the round platform for actors and chorus (so-called orkhestry). The playwright increased the volume of plays (about 1500 lines while Eskhil has on average 1100 lines in the play) and began to write the first each play on a separate plot (the tradition did not prevent to put in one day on three tragedies and one amusing drama of satir to it, unlike Eskhil, to make each of plays quite independent work).

The separate information about Sophocles reached us in many sources. Most stoutly it is told about his life in so-called Sophocles`s Biography created probably in the 1st century BC. From the playwright`s life this text separates approximately the half-millennia, however in it those stories which were told about the great compatriot by Greeks are carefully kept.

Sophocles was a son of the owner of a weapon workshop. Having received good gymnastic and musichesky (i.e. in the field of sciences and arts) education, he once in youth was awarded on gymnastic competitions and elected in 16 years the leader in chorus where nude, umashchyonny oil, with lira in hands sang a solemn song on the occasion of defeat of Persians in Salaminsky battle - that in which his senior contemporary and future rival in a theatrical field Eskhil caused a stir.

Versatile talent of Sophocles was shown further. He was the priest of a local cult of god Alkon connected with doctoring science; as the strategist participated in a campaign against samosets, and the part of army entrusted it engaged with groups under leadership of the eleysky philosopher Melissa - and the playwright won a victory over the philosopher. Claim that many governors of other states invited him to the yard, but Sophocles betrayed to Athens always refused. It is known that the playwright was on friendly terms with the great historian Herodotus, the Athenian strategist Pericles.

From - for the weak voice Sophocles refuses participation as the protagonist (the first actor) in submission of the tragedies soon. However data remained that else in youth in the tragedy " which did not remain till our time; Navsikaya he played a role of the main character, showing grace of gestures in dancings and in a scene of a ball game, and in the tragedy (too not reached our time) Tamirida masterly played on a cithara. He was the first playwright who refused to participate in the plays as the first protagonist, remaining only the author of the text and music, - and other authors followed its example.

Having gained on theatrical competitions in 468 a victory over Eskhil, Sophocles becomes the great successor of traditions of the last. For all life of the playwright to it awarded 24 victories (this majority of its works - besides that it possesses over hundred plays executed by tetralogies) in afinskikhteatralny competitions, at the same time Sophocles never appeared on the third - the last place.

The case when Sophocles Iofont`s son for certain mercantile reasons accused the father of madness is known. In court the great playwright read a fragment from yet not put tragedy Oedipus in Colon also declared: If I am mad, I - not Sophocles if I am Sophocles, I am not mad - it was also justified by the shaken judges.

Causes of death of Sophocles are called different: whether he choked with grape seed, whether died for pleasure at another victory, whether died of an overstrain when reading the verses. They say that the Athenians who were proud of the compatriot made the decision in memory of Sophocles`s valor annually to make in his honor of sacrifice.