How in Russia gutny glass appeared?
transparent materials Known to mankind can be counted on fingers. The main of them - glass. From - for beauty and high hygienic properties it with hunting is used for production of ware. A never-ending variety of forms and coloring allow glasswares not to get out of fashion throughout the millennia.
Speak, there is nothing stronger, than beaten ware. What you will not tell about ware whole. For this reason the ancient ware reaches us mainly in the form of splinters, it is good still if not separate. With that big nervousness we look at the ware which reached us in centuries intact though now use. But to do it, every minute risking to turn it into splinters, it is too wasteful - it is invaluable. And therefore - the place of such rarities in the museum where is though some hope, is a pity that not a guarantee that the ware will be kept further, and our grandsons will be able to look at it.
We do not know who invented glass. Argue even on in what country it appeared for the first time - whether in Egypt, whether in Mesopotamia. The ancient Roman historian Pliny - the senior (79 - 23 BC) considered that for the first time glass was incidentally discovered by Phoenician seamen.
To the most ancient man-made piece of glass, a greenish bead 9 mm long - about five and a half thousand years. The ware appeared later. We were reached by the most ancient samples of glasswares - three bowls of the Pharaoh Tutmos III (apprx. 1450) . Learned to blow ware still later. This technology was invented in Syria in 27-14 BC
you ask and how you did bowls, without knowing blowing? Very simply: from small sand molded a form, and for several seconds dipped into glass fusion. Then the form with the thin layer of a steklomassa which stuck to it was cooled, and sand was deleted.
From the Middle East glass spread worldwide, its began to do in India, China, the countries of Europe. To ²²² to a century of our era it reached also our homeland. The first domestic glass products including ware, archeologists found at excavation in the Chernivtsi region. Later finds belong to times of Kievan Rus`. In the territory of Ukraine archeologists dug out a set of steklovarenny furnaces. Excellent glass was cooked, for example, in workshops of the Kiev Monastery.
Interesting supervision: the state prospers - also steklovarenny trade prospers. Destructive attacks Tatar - the Mongolian hordes could not but affect glassmaking, it for a long time fell into decay, masters ran up who where.
But the ware is necessary always, and here in quiet reserved places, dense thickets where there were no problems with firewood, on coast of the rivers and lakes where there were deposits of refractory clay and clean quartz sands, the small semi-handicraft steklovarenny enterprises - guta began to arise. Them was much in the North and the West of Ukraine. It found reflection in names of settlements. Only in Kiev region there are four “ Guta “.
These pass - plants were extremely primitively equipped: as a rule, one furnace on several steklovarenny pots, a metal tube and... all. The ware was blown without form therefore it had no correct outlines. For work in so primitive conditions skilled masters who would cope with difficult technology of blowing were necessary. And they were not slow to appear. Need generated the highest skill.
Attacks of hordes and cruel Cossack liberating wars ended. Ukraine was a part of the Russian Empire. And production of glasswares from now on began to develop on the basis of the highest commands. In “ Complete works of laws of the Russian Empire “ for 1720 we read: “ The Great Sovereign specified “ mirror glass plants envy in Kiev in the decent place; and at those plants to do mirror glasses and crystal ware... “. They began to be built also, and not only in Kiev - business - that favorable.