To eat that he will eat and who will give it?
you Remember a saying which is translated from English as follows: is to live, or to live that is? In my opinion, “ or “ here it is inappropriate. It is better to use the " union; and “. Also is and to live. Normally! Only, oh how not easy to make it to a usual Russian family.
… I remember this book in sound cover of brown color since the earliest childhood. Before every holiday the grandmother got it from a book shelf, chose two or three suitable recipes and cooked. Of course, exotic products had to be replaced with something more simply. But all the same what at it turned out seemed to me refinement top. And ritual of emergence of this book in kitchen foretold a holiday table and something especially tasty.
Now - that I understand that we lived in poverty, it is worse than a fir-tree, than other unemployed in the West. But then, in the childhood, I also could not imagine that according to recipes “ Books about tasty and healthy food “ (year of the edition - 1953 - y, circulation - 0,5 million) it is possible to eat daily … Almost parents, our grandmothers tried to feed each of people of my generation nourishingly, simple rough food. That ate more. And it is valid, we did not feel hungry. But where a guarantee that monotonous food - bread, cabbage, potato, the same Russian cabbage soup yes porridge - did not reduce our life. So that now average life expectancy at us in the country - about 60 years. And in Japan, by the way, 78 years.
Also it is not necessary to write off this sad result only for our collapsing health care, high child mortality, traditional Russian immoderation in food and drink. It is better to say honest that during the Soviet period of this state we ate badly, however, as well as lived.
Well and that occurs in present Russia, and the most important: what tendency of development of the situation in the field of food?
Experts from Institute of food of AMN of Russia consider that at us and in the West in the sphere of food approximately identical and scientific tendencies, and pseudo-scientific populism. At the same time inadequacy of food to what is necessary is shown first of all in the excess caloric content of food. About 20 percent of the population of Russia have obesity. Of course, a lot of things depend on the region and, respectively, traditions. For example, in Hugo - the western areas adjoining Ukraine, with an excessive weight it is much more people, than in Siberia.
In recent years in all developed countries consumption of animal fats, sugar, salt decreases. So in Finland consumption of butter in a decade decreased from 12,2 kg to 6,3 kg a year on the person. In Western Europe consumption of salt decreased to 4 - 6 grams a day on the person whereas in Russia consumption of salt averages 15 grams. However, abroad there are a lot of salt substitutes which are necessary for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. At us one sanosol, is also on sale only in drugstores. The same with artificial sweeteners. Began to refuse saccharin (there is a suspicion that it is cancerogenic). Now use slastilin. However, at consumption of 70 - 100 grams of sugar a day the healthy person cannot worry: sugar is completely acquired by an organism, without making harmful effects on exchange processes.
Generally speaking, the science about food is substantially focused on the average person. But each person is individual. And even age gradation, a floor and a type of professional activity are not sufficient conditions for definition of individual structure of food. if to add
A to it that in a household the Russian person should do a lot of things by the hands, without relying on household appliances which are imperfect (and the thicket does not have it at all), then you come to a conclusion: the population existing Norma of physiological requirements for various groups - the document especially estimated.
In a number of regions of Russia, as well as in developing countries, is not enough in a diet of animal protein. Needs for such minerals as iron, potassium are not satisfied, there are not enough vitamins. At the same time excess of fats in the menu of our fellow citizens is noted. Buying seemingly fat-free sausage and sausages in shop, hostesses also do not guess that fatty emulsions enter into them. As experts speak, such hidden fat can reach thirty percent from the mass of the final product. If to speak about minerals - zinc, iodine, copper, manganese, fluorine, chrome, molybdenum - that scientists of Institute of food, consider that here it is not necessary to go into extremes. When note that in beet there is a magnesium, and the sea cabbage contains iodine, so necessary in food, the population begins to buy up beet and sea cabbage. Forgetting that the same minerals contain also in other food.
Speaking about the balanced food, it is necessary to mention the use of alcoholic drinks: to run away ridiculously from the Russian historical realities. Concerning harmful effects of alcohol on health there are, likely, literature tons. However, very often reasonings of authors are based on emotions and arguments of morals. In my opinion, it is important to know how this or that dose of alcohol influences an organism of almost healthy person. In 1903 the Russian physiologist N. Volovich conducted comparative research of heart rate at consumption of different doses of alcohol. At the same time for purity of experiment experimental days starved, and a defined point was “ number of beating of the pulse after drinking the person of a glass of " water;. The following data were as a result recorded:
of 20 grams of alcohol (alcohol) - did not give any changes;
of 30 grams of alcohol caused increase in pulse at 430 blows in days;
of 60 grams - on 1872 blows a day;
of 120 grams - on 12980 blows.
Thus, at consumption of 20 grams of alcohol (in terms of vodka the content of 40% of alcohol it means 50 g) in an organism of almost healthy person visible negative changes are not observed. And a limit of norm of consumption it is possible to call 30 grams of alcohol (75 g of vodka).
At the same time as V. Pokhlyobkin in the best-seller " wrote; " vodka History; 50 grams of vodka are quite sufficient as kulinarno - accompanying accent to too fat meat or to solyono - spicy fish and vegetable food. And as such food is eaten not every day, and usually 2 - 3 times a week, a floor - a liter bottle of vodka in a month quite corresponds to a normal dose. With the use with such dishes as pelmeni, pancakes with oil, sour cream or caviar, razvarny beef, ham, a salmon - vodka helps their assimilation and makes “ stamping “ food, refreshing and “ washing away “ fat effect. Since ancient times body - leptichesky properties of vodka were accustomed to food structure of the Russian snack table.
When there is a loss of gastronomic value of vodka (vodka remains as an indispensable component of feasts, and the snack is reduced), this foodstuff it becomes very frequent household drug.
However, we will try to consider a problem of the balanced food from the point of view of game theory that now is extremely fashionable. Nobody will deny that the game theory is quite applicable to such processes as military operations, economic development, elections at all levels and even administration of justice. If it is about meal, it is game in its pure look. Let`s try to formulate as tell mathematics, a regional task. So, we have: it is necessary that needs of an organism for various food components were completely satisfied; that meal gave pleasure; that the acceptable money was spent for it. Considering the last condition, the solution of a task will depend on to what social group each specific person belongs. If the representative of middle class can accept option of institutions of a fast food (the " type; McDonald`s “) “ new Russian “ quite on a pocket daily food at restaurants of the highest class. Pensioners and persons from many other social groups, most likely, should cook food at home. What, however, does not exclude option of the balanced food at all. Just on this “ game “ much more time and forces will leave. In the final account it is absolutely not clear whose game (from the point of view of a healthy lifestyle) will be more successful as, eating at restaurants, “ new Russians “ are not insured from an overeating and abuse of alcoholic drinks at all.
A conclusion arises by itself: representatives of all social groups for a successful solution need only - to be one (according to the Bible) wise as a snake and simple as a pigeon.
But we will return for a minute to our past which in many respects defines the present and the future. In the Soviet Union according to the State Committee statistically “ production of the major types of production of the food industry per capita “ steadily grew. So from 1980 to 1989 production of meat (industrial development) increased by 30 percent, sugar - for 20 percent, vegetable oil - for 10 percent, milk - approximately for 30 percent. The only thing that Goskomstat of the USSR dared to worsen those years of stagnation, so it extraction of salt and production of alcoholic beverages. Who could assume then that in Russia at the beginning of 21 - go centuries of nearly 40 percent of food will be imported, and the Russian producers (at least, before crisis of 1998) in the majority will not be competitive?!
Still it is worth mentioning that at the end of 90 - x the CONCEPT of the STATE POLICY in the field of HEALTHY FOOD of the POPULATION of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION FOR the PERIOD TILL 2005 was developed.
According to this concept at the second stage (2000 - 2002) of a way to food happiness already had to occur “ increase in production of " vitamins; and “ in the scientific sphere basic researches on specification of needs of the person for feedstuffs and energy " are conducted;. A little more (2003 - 2005) also comes “ overcoming of negative tendencies in a nation state of health, improvement of structure of consumption of the foodstuff including enriched with vitamins, minerals, dietary supplements … “. It was supposed also that “ during the subsequent period production and consumption of main types of foodstuff, vitamins and the " dietary supplements will be stabilized;. Then also there had to come the bright food future. Almost like at Fazil Iskander in his story “ Rabbits and boas “ where the food problem is corner too (the truth, vitamins, minerals and dietary supplements at the writer are replaced with experiences with a cauliflower).
Certainly, the government concept in the field of food generated the relevant order of the Ministry of Health for No. 274 which obliged medical officials of different level to organize, create, prepare, exercise control … From every line of the plan of measures and the mechanism of implementation of the order blew as conviction that “ scientific researches will develop the advancing rates “ there will be supervision for “ food status of various groups of the population “ and needy will help. To help “ the products enriched with irreplaceable factors and the " dietary supplements;. And the culture of food by all means will increase.
All - finally it is necessary to upset authors of the concept. Everything listed could happen not earlier, than their difficult readable spells by itself would begin to be transformed to high salaries of our fellow citizens, large investments into the industry and agriculture, real increase in production.
However, in recent years position of the Russian food industry improved really a little: production of many products grew and even their quality as a result of the competition to import increased. But who knows that he will be tomorrow?
And now … that do not tell, and quality of life in Russia still low. And how here not to remember Solzhenitsyn`s word: “ In full of a zapushcha we health, also have no drugs and even we already forgot healthy food … “. About food - it precisely.