What is “ tuyug “? Let`s talk about firm forms
As it is known from a course of dialectic materialism, in the nature the unity of form and content takes place. And something from them initially, and something again, I do not remember that. I remember that socialist art has to be ideologically true according to contents and national in a form. Or perhaps on the contrary. It is not it, and that in art, unlike all other branches of culture where the form has to just not prevent maintenance, in art it has somewhere even independent value.
For example, in versification. It is not enough to state a touching story of the inhabitant of the drevnegruzinsky monastery in a rhyme. It is necessary to make still it ingenious verses - and your creation will worry centuries.
There is a lot of poetic forms. Besides a free verse where if only something was rhymed with something, there are strict forms where both the rhyme, and the size and number of lines are strictly regulated. We already reviewed one example - Limerick . But there are also others “ firm " forms; not less interesting. Especially they are widespread in the east.
For example, tuyug - actually Turkic form of lyrics, very peculiar variation of a rubaa. Tuyug - a quatrain. Feature of a tuyug - in rhyme type. The rhyme has to be homonymous (such kind of a rhyme is called tadzhnis). The first, second and fourth lines, as in ruba are rhymed.
That such homonyms ? It words which are written equally, and mean a miscellaneous . The most known example is a braid (hair), a braid (tool), a braid (something on the river), a braid (a short form from “ slanting “) . Well you understood. Any other rhymes in a tuyuga are inadmissible , differently it any more not tuyug, and just of a rubaa (widely known thanks to Omar Khayyam).
Differ with full tadzhnis (“ pure “) - tadzhnis - both Tamm - and compound tadzhnis (“ sewed “) - tadzhnis - and - murakkab.
Example of a full tadzhnis:
Troops of spring returned, in the foothills a camp became.
I, are in love with a face of a star, with pleasure birds began to sing .
vernal are faithful to the Order, snow were removed with kochevya.
Only eyes a feather are cold, shine more dangerously than of steel .
(D. Shatalov) of
are rhymed words Here - homonyms: a verb of steel in value stopped, a verb of steel in value became also a noun of steel (in a genitive case).
And here an example of a compound tadzhnis in a tuyuga of Navoiy:
I did not find balm for wounds, thumbing through pages of books .
That the body to me torments in blood - whether birds of prey pack ?
to me soul burned down love Fire, and in bitter that desert
I did not find any curative leaf. That is are rhymed by
(S. Ivanov`s translation) of
“ compound homonyms “ - the groups of words at combination developing in one “ key “ word. Here it should be noted virtuosity of the translator. Probably, you already estimated that in Russian it is quite difficult to write tuyug. But it is even more difficult to translate ….
is lower - one of models of creativity of fans of east lyrics in which several derogations from a canon are, however, allowed - for example, there is a title, also in the second line treacherous anzhanbeman ( transfer crept in) (whereas couplets have to comprise finished thought), - but the main condition - a homonymous rhyme - is observed.
The address of a lamb to the owner
you are deprived of Earth, the poor. Dreaming of plot, You sold to
everything: turban and raincoat. But conjured over hardly
the Live favourite sheep. I am touched by care,
Ya in a feather I will address, I am recognized by you in practice .
(L. Medvedev) Emergence of a form of a tuyug is connected by
with features of the Turkic language rich with homonyms (the article “ Tuyug “ from the website of east poetry “ Simurg “) .
In Russian to write them very difficult, but it is possible, Here several tuyug of Anna Fayn :
Hundred years, dreamily, with unloved I lived ,
Restraining myself, wishing nothing not to ,
But to the sun leave hopes caravans,
of Doubts - dogs to them not to listen to of bark !
The dress royal not is twisted, and Already the suite admires
- Ah, this cloak to you, the right, to the person, Hands skillful is twisted by
the pine shakes and melts ,
Shaking off branches half awake ,
to It seems - nectar flows from wasps on
her Cora that it became suddenly close.
Why and to readers not to try the hand in writing of tuyug - without being limited in the choice of subjects and figurative means and having concentrated attention only on a formality, - for poets it is useful “ rifmichesky gymnastics “.
Here for example (we consider as an excess concession and we do not notice) such, I will not be afraid of this word, tadzhnis - and - murakkab:
Kohl you were fond Lives of School -
the Habit do not replace sh with Coca . But remember
- the author bitterly cries,
When to it you stav sh a stake! oh ...