What customs are connected with the Russian ethnic cuisine (part 2)?
Russian cuisine during Christmas and on easter holidays.
Christmas - one of the lightest Christian holidays. In Russia Christmas was always celebrated with special awe.
the Orthodox Church celebrates Christmas in the night of 6 - go for January 7 on new style, Catholic - on December 25. Evening on January 6 - the Christmas Eve, the eve of Christmas designated also Christmas carols.
Christmas Eve, or the sochevnik, received the name from “ sochivo “ - the ritual food obligatory for this evening prepared from juice almond poppy with honey and porridges from red wheat or barley, rye, a buckwheat, peas, lentil, later - rice. The meal in Christmas and Epiphany Christmas Eves, on the homeland, christening, commemoration, with only that difference began Sochiv that this porridge more often called “ kolivo “ was different in structure. So, the Christmas kolivo was prepared fast. It was prepared with juice, or a milk poppy, almond, nut, hempy with addition of honey and the crushed kernels of walnut, leshchinny nuts, almonds, the pounded poppy.
For the second day of Christmas cooked woman`s porridge, or a babkina a kolivo. In the ancient time there was a custom to visit the house in which there was a newborn, and among gifts to bring a babkina porridge and babkina pies. Unlike a Christmas fast kolivo the babkina was prepared “ rich “. On commemoration gave a fast funeral kolivo - kolivo. By the way, the rye or wheaten culm, a stalk and an ear were called in the ancient time kolivo. From here, perhaps, and the name of a kolivo as Old Believers, for example, prepared it only from red wheat. This custom remains to this day.
The special ceremonial food is cooked on easter holidays. Easter, an Easter cake and colored eggs surely enter it. The most ancient of them is the Easter cake. In memory that Jesus Christ, coming to pupils after Revival, Itself tasted with them food apostles during a meal did not sit down on the average place at a table, leaving before it part of bread as though the Lord it is invisible was present among them.
developed to leave custom on a holiday of Resurrection in the temple bread Subsequently (on - Greek it is called “ " artos;) . On this bread it is represented or a cross on which only the crown of thorns is visible, but is not present Crucified - as a sign of the Christ`s victory over death, or an image of Revival.
There is a custom and in each family to bake rich bread - an Easter cake, as if home-made artos and to consecrate it in church. Value of this bread consists also that for Christians it replaces an antiquated feast of unleavened bread, though is prepared from yeast dough. Symbolically it means transition from the Old Testament to New especially as Christ in one of parables compared the Kingdom of God to ferment (yeast). According to the Greek text of the Gospel, during the Last Supper Christ blessed leavened (barmy) bread, on - Greek called “ " artos; but not fresh - “ asima “.
History of tableware.
tableware Habitual to us appeared and became current not at the same time. For example, our ancestors used a knife long since. It was carried behind a belt and used, without doing distinctions as table, economic, hunting and even fighting. Special table knives appeared at our ancestors only in the 16th century, but also they had then not rounded off, and sharp as at a dagger the end.
Mentions of a tablespoon as about an ordinary subject of use, more than one thousand years meet in sources, which. With only that difference that in those days the spoon was one as well as a knife therefore it did not call the dining room. As a rule, the spoon too was always carried at themselves in a special case, behind a belt or just behind a boot top. With a spoon in a boot it was possible to see representatives of the lower class of the population at the beginning of our century.
The newest of tableware, habitual for us, is the fork. The upper class of the Russian society got acquainted with it at the time of Petrovsky reforms, that is in the 18th century. The first forks which appeared this time in the richest houses were with two teeth. And until then even at an imperial table did without fork.
of the Plate appeared in Russia rather late - not earlier than the 16th century. Until then the pot and a bowl were the only ware in the Russian country house. As from a bowl several people or all family, as a rule, ate, they were big, deep and intended, generally for liquid dishes.
of Function of an individual plate long time carried out big flat pieces of bread which or too were eaten together with food, or, in more prosperous houses, were given after a lunch to beggars or dogs