Councils of professor Plotnikov of
“ Freedom of one comes to an end where freedom of another begins, - with melancholy I reflected, studying from the fifth floor process of construction of a small skyscraper opposite. - All. It is solved. I want the own house. Bothered to live in panel “ to a five-storey apartment block “. I dream of clean air in a rural solitude. A circle of a cow, cow, cow and the herdboy on a pipe strums the forgotten melody " long ago;.
Thought of the device of a cozy nest visited me more than once, but the final decision is made today and I got on phone. My many friends and acquaintances were already constructed or are who at the level of the bases who leaves under a roof and who does to the electrician. Their valuable advice will obviously be useful.
by results of telephone call-down became clear that most of builders - laymans, costs of housing construction space, terms of construction of a fazenda of half a year indefinitely. It turned out that to build the house in our country - a lottery. It is possible to pull out an advantageous sphere, but probability of it very low. And I decided to address experts. Sveta Zagorskaya, the former schoolmate, advised to find Ivan Nikanorovich Plotnikov - professor of institute of wooden housing construction. Svetka appeared one of the few who was lucky with the house. It twisted to itself a nest quickly and rather cheap only thanks to councils of professor who appeared besides her father-in-law.
I found Ivan Nikanorovich at his dacha in Moscow area. Judging by reaching from a site howling an electroplane and squeal of the chiansaw, Plotnikov was not only the theorist in the field of housing construction.
- the Bath decided to tinker, - professor explained to me, opening a gate. - The daughter-in-law about you called me, asked to help. You come, we will drink tea.
We settled down in a garden in a small arbor. The wife of professor brought a samovar, plum jam and a plate with shanezhka.
- Chick-pea - with, the young man, tell in more detail. As I understand, there was a wish a lodge in the village.
- Wanted professor. The desire is huge, and there is not a lot of experience and money. Help council. I want to build the wooden house. The offer in the market so extensive that I became puzzled. Where to find competent builders. How much is … - Wait for
, wait. It is not necessary to lump everything together. Answer at first - why to you the house.
- As, why. To escape from city chaos, to breathe something other than exhaust gases, to try the real well water.
- Everything is clear. Let`s drink a tea and slowly we will begin to build your house. I will give small lecture now, and then with pleasure I will answer all your questions.
Both the theater begins with a hanger, and construction of the wooden house begins with the material choice. The modern market offers both a glued bar, and roundup, and SMALLPOX and many other things. It would seem, look at the level of the income and choose material for the house. But not everything is so simple.
At first it is necessary to answer one simple question - that for you the main thing in future country cottage.
If a priority are the big areas, halls, drawing rooms, billiard rooms and the basic principle - desire to strike with the scale of guests and relatives - choose a glued bar. Only this material will allow to satisfy ambitions of your architect. If you want
that the house “ breathed “ but there is not a lot of money and you are not strongly concerned by questions of durability and durability - choose the rounded log or the pro-thinned-out bar.
If is not enough money, but the lodge in the village is necessary extremely - the frame house filled with various artificial heaters - your destiny.
I, at last, if you want to receive the environmentally friendly, strong house, the house in which warmly and cozy in the winter and cool in the hot summer in which house is so well slept as the first roosters will hardly wake you - look for good carpenters and order the house of the manual cabin.
Here also begin problems. Unfortunately, in our country of professional carpenters in the afternoon with fire you will not find. No, the offer in the market huge. Crews of shabashnik, potboilers and slovens travel about over the country, offering nothing not understanding in wooden architecture to customers quickly and cheap announce two - a three-storyed mansion. The most interesting - they will surely construct them and, having received money, will disappear also quickly, as well as appeared.
Owners, having given terribly earned, in exchange receive a set of problems in the form of the warped walls, the proceeding roof and for some reason not opening doors and windows.
If you want to sleep peacefully in the log house, it is necessary to acquire the following.
Time. Construction of the good wooden house will require 2 - 3 years. In the first year you have to make a felling. Surely from a winter forest. A felling it is necessary in May - September to put on the base. It is better for Stolyark not to establish - let the felling be aired. We do a roof and we wait. How many - depends on house height. As the Russian mentality provides, at least, two-storeyed construction - it is necessary to wait for year. Then we measure shrinkage and if everything is all right, we make the decision on the beginning of finishing works. Shrinkage of the house can make from 5 to 10 percent. Walls of the house will be within three years after the beginning of construction to gather, to give moisture.
Wood. It is necessary to choose only ripe, winter preparation the wood, without “ podsochka “ not affected with various diseases. For example, the pine (the main material for construction) has to go to the cabin only in 81 year after landing. The best months for wood preparation - January, February, March. Diameter of the wood has to be at least from 26 cm. The optimum size - from 30 to 40 cm. If there is an opportunity to keep the wood on laying some time on well aired platform - surely make it. Via drying cameras it is better not to banish the wood - will crack and will lose the unique properties of the natural conditioner. Unfortunately, in modern conditions it is almost impossible to do wood preparation not by chiansaws, but the axe. The main material for the house - a pine. It is whenever possible best of all not to use a fir-tree in walls. The fir-tree is good for finishing and for production of elements of a roof. It is desirable to make the lower wreaths of a larch. All house from a larch - on the fan. The cedar - is good, but “ bites “. It is too expensive.
Choice of technology. There is the Russian, Norwegian and Canadian cabin. The Swiss way is also known, but is painfully exotic and in our country is practically not applied. The Russian cabin - the most traditional and demanded. Unfortunately, the obligatory subcaulking iron of walls in a year which will lead to raising of a felling approximately on a wreath is required. That is, problems with shrinkage of a felling are quite considerable.
the Carpenters who are engaged now in the Russian cabin for some reason so sostragivat recently logs electroplanes that the tree begins to remind the rounded log. It is absolutely wrong. Art of the carpenter in that also consists that the uneven wood, with “ sgony “ to put in a felling. And it is beautiful. And durability is not lost. Round walls are pleasant not to all customers therefore inside the felling is done sometimes with “ protesy “.
the Norwegian cabin is made only of a gun carriage (a dvukhkantovy bar). Enjoys wide popularity in countries of Northern Europe. Appearance of a felling bears to the house from a glued bar a strong resemblance. Further finishing of a felling is not required by a board that strongly reduces the price of construction. The further subcaulking iron of walls is not required. The Norwegian bowl becomes so that to exclude hit of water and air, that is the possibility of rotting of wood in the most weak spot - in connection of two logs decreases. Besides the Norwegian bowl - samozaklinivayushayasya. In use a felling there is a consolidation between wreaths.
the Roof in the Norwegian felling - a whole with a wall. “ Wasps “ Russian name “ horse “ and “ sleg “ get the idea of pediments. In the Norwegian felling there is no traditional Russian ceiling. The ceiling is arranged so that “ wasps “ - healthy round logs with a diameter of 30 - 36 cm were visible. Quite interesting and unusual interior turns out. The truth at the same time expenses on heating also increase. Cracking gun carriages is a little more, than a round log.
the Canadian cabin - the round wood and the Norwegian bowl. That is undertake advantage and the Russian and Norwegian technology. At us it is still little-known and not really demanded. It is not enough experts.
Carpenters. If you want to construct a small bath in rural style - it is possible to employ shabashnik safely. If the serious house - firm with a name and the built houses. Surely learn whether it is possible to see already built houses and to communicate to their owners - you learn everything and at once. Ask about system of preparation and storage of the wood, about “ podsochka “. “ Podsochka “ - a pitch intake for needs of the defensive industry at the Soviet power. There was a law earlier - the wood without “ podsochka “ to the cabin does not go. “ Podsochka “ strongly worsens properties of wood. There are areas where 100% of the wood podsochenny. In such places it is better not to order a felling.
If in firm begin to prove that they the winter and summer forest differ in nothing - safely leave and do not contact such experts. It is desirable that the crew which cut down the house then and put it on the base. Surely look at a production site of firm and estimate the level of culture of production. Learn whether there is an opportunity to use the wood of non-standard length (more than 6 meters) at construction. Many firms carry the wood cars and have no opportunity to work with “ dlinnomer “.
And in end. The mankind for centuries built wooden houses and for centuries was discontentedly whimsical character of a tree. Also conducts it, and problems with shrinkage, and appearance of the house did not arrange. Therefore as soon as an opportunity appeared, the person invented new technologies of work with a tree. It began to dry it, to cut, glue. And he solved practically all problems. However, the tree at the same time lost the unique properties and became only one more construction material on an equal basis with a brick and concrete.
Therefore - the choice for you. Solve - in what house in the country to meet singing of the first roosters.
We drank already three cups of fragrant tea. In my head something began to clear up, but I decided to try professor still.
- Ivan Nikanorovich, let`s return to the wood. Why the majority of houses is under construction of a pine.
- Everything is very simple. The house from a pine has an optimum ratio of the price and quality. The pine possesses fine ecology. All like to walk in a pinery and to breathe fine air. The main lack of a pine - a posineniye. Posineniye arises, as a rule, at summer wood at the wrong storage.
the Larch - stronger, but also more “ cold “ tree. Heat conductivity is 20% higher than it, than at a pine, so walls of the house should be done to thickness. It is optimum to use a larch on the lower wreaths.
the Cedar (a cedar pine) - a soft and beautiful tree. Unfortunately, very expensive. Here you look according to the income.
at What to the north grows the wood, especially strong wood. The it is less than a distance between annual rings - the better.
- Why in the wooden house is well slept. Whether there is some scientific explanation for it.
- Of course, is. Wood is the natural conditioner as in it there is a continuous air exchange. Timbered walls promote removal from the room of anthropotoxins (the substances received as a result of activity of the person). Even their small amount worsens health, reduces working capacity and cerebration.
Further. Relative humidity of air is in limits of 50% that is optimum for the person. Stay in the wooden house not only improves a dream, normalizes arterial pressure, removes stresses, but also stimulates memory and increases intelligence.
- you speak about all views of wooden houses? there is no
- of course. Only about the houses made of the massif of natural drying. The young man, unless it is possible to arrange air conditioning if in the house the minvata or any other artificial heater lies, for example. Or if you upholstered walls with lining and covered its three varnish coats.
- That is, it is necessary to breathe a varnish?
- And the anthropotoxins in addition.
- Ivan Nikanorovich and how artificial drying influences wood?
- If is about wall material - I would not advise. A tree - the unique organic material which is thought up by the nature. I emphasize - organic. The person, unfortunately, is so arranged that all the time tries to correct the mother - the nature. Grows up pears on apple-trees, drives logs into the dryer. No, the purpose - that is clear. It is necessary to reduce construction terms, to reduce problems with shrinkage of the building. But in this world it is necessary to pay for everything. During artificial drying there is a pitch crystallization process, pores of wood are clogged up and it stops “ to breathe “.
- And how then to be with a glued bar? All mass media blow about it, as about future material.
- the Glued bar, in my opinion, fine material for big rooms. If you decide to build of it the house, it is necessary to think strong. The tree in a glued bar is one of materials. The second as you, probably, guessed - glue. Whether this material as the natural conditioner will work - you can answer this question. Besides it is the most expensive material in the market.
- Professor that you will tell about an otsilidrovanny log.
- If only you want to save on construction. To the otsilindrovochny machine there is a wood, as a rule, from 18 to 26 cm. Often there is a wood unripe and with “ podsochka “. The main minus - you receive at the exit identical pencils, but not an exclusive, as at the manual cabin. I will not speak about removal of a strong top layer - this subject is already beaten.
- Why then in our cottage settlement as mushrooms grow from roundup, a glued bar, the pro-thinned-out bar, panel board at home, frame and is practically not present chopped carpenters?
- Advertising, the young man. If firms invested money, big money, in the equipment, they should be beaten off. In the West long ago understood that the most prestigious and expensive houses only from the massif and only manual production. There it is accepted to live in a unification with the nature and the main parameter of housing for Europeans - ecology. It is necessary for our compatriots that the house was higher, than at the neighbor.
- Ivan Nikanorovich, dispel doubts about fire danger of the wooden house and at the same time tell what antiseptics to process it.
- during the fire the main danger is constituted not by(with) walls, and finishing of the house. People, as a rule, perish from products of burning of artificial materials: carpet, linoleum, vinyl wall-paper and other achievements of a civilization. Walls during the fire char and process of burning is sharply slowed down. Brick houses burn at all not worse than wooden.
Antiseptikov in the market great variety. I can only advise to use environmentally friendly. For example, on the basis of birch tar.
- So the house black will turn out.
- But very stylishly. I in the West saw - black houses with red windows.
- And the last question, professor. - that in what house you live?
- In usual, rural. Bought an old felling, sorted, replaced the lower wreath. Our professors receive a little, it was necessary to go on the way of economy. Everything, the young man, is time to go to complete to me a bath. As you will build the house, you come, about a bath I will tell. At us in Russia the house without bath - money for wind. Say hello to the daughter-in-law and about my councils you can to tell friends and acquaintances - can will be useful.
Dabout appointments and to the next meeting.