What is process “ Money laundering “?
In the theory, under the term “ money laundering “ methods and procedures, the allowing means received as a result of illegal activity to transfer to other assets for concealment of their true origin, the real owners or other aspects which could demonstrate violation of the legislation mean. In other words, “ money laundering “ - it is legalization of income gained in the criminal way.
What is income gained in the criminal way?
Income gained in the criminal way can be all that is connected with “ dirty money “. It can be corruption, extortion, terrorist activity, a pimping, compulsory “ protection racket “ business or drug traffic, smuggling of excise goods, corporate crime and other frauds in the enterprise environment. In essence money laundering accompanies any crime which motive is obtaining the income.
Traditionally process of money laundering consists of three stages. At the first stage (a placement stage) there is placement of the illegal income in financial institutions. The second stage (a transformation stage) consists in carrying out financial operations which purpose is concealment of a criminal origin of the income. At the third stage (a consolidation stage) “ cleared “ the capital comes back to the criminal in the form of money, property or property rights.
There is a lot of the schemes “ money laundering “. So, classical schemes of money laundering include use of operations with cash, abuses of services of bank and other financial institutions, operations with expensive personal and real estate, gamblings. In recent years schemes with involvement of offshore finance companies, the Internet, credit cards, non-bank were widely adopted (“ alternative “) translation systems of money and international trade in goods and services.
If in more detail to consider process “ money laundering “ there is, for example, a method of complication of traces. It is a number of operations with dirty money (up to their transfer to accounts of specially created false firms) as a result of which true circumstances of their origin cannot almost be established. There is a method of distortion of accounting, bank, broker or other reports, that is entering of obviously false information into reporting documents. Here auditors just can also make the efforts. The conclusion of phony contracts is very distributed (for example, to fictitious receiving the credit). There are also other ways. All of them are qualified as washing.
Though uncles in the ministries claim that you should not carry tax crimes to sources of dirty money, evasion from customs payments, and a currency non-return from - for a boundary, but all - seems to me that the money received (more precisely, not given) from evasion of payment of taxes, customs payments, also is “ the laundered money “.
It is known that one of the most widespread and effective ways of evasion of taxes is use “ left “ the companies registered according to the lost and stolen passports or according to passports of persons which or are on a zone or davny - long ago went to a next world. New situation on fight against money laundering - the law “ About counteraction of legalization of income gained in the criminal way “ which obliges the Russian banks to reveal unusual or suspicious operations of the clients and “ to knock “ on them in body of financial investigation, is good help to tax authorities on fight against firms - the something ephemeral which is engaged in cashing in of the money arriving on their settlement accounts.
But the best way to launder money - to allow them to lie down. To wait several decades. Time - the best bleach. Barons are robbers 20 - go centuries became the most dear families of the countries now. The people who were engaged in smuggling and thefts, bribing politicians for receiving privileges in the new millennium became a respectable rich class.
Interestingly, and you sometime asked a question where it is better to launder money? Most likely, no. And here in the USA in a type of relevance of this problem even designed special automatic machines, in only a few minutes the eliminating pollution from banknotes. The inventor of these automatic machines Frank Masede is sure that his cars will be in great demand as money, especially not the largest banknotes, are an ideal opportunity for distribution of dangerous bacteria (by and large, it is about cases of infection with disputes of anthrax in the USA and about a possibility of carrying out other biological diversions). By calculations of the inventor, such car, depending on the size and volume of the operations performed by it, will cost from $80 to $200 thousand.