What is symbiosis, or Interaction for the sake of life of
from a school bench much it is known of interaction in the nature which is peculiar to all live organisms - from microbes to the person. For example, on the African plains in the close neighbourhood there live baboons and antelopes the impala. Sensitive sense of smell of antelopes and an acute eyesight of baboons helps them to notice predators from far away. Similarly also sharp-sighted ostriches and zebras, sensitive on an ear, who in case of danger give signals interact.
In fact, similar mutual assistance in the nature can be observed everywhere. And such interaction - a basis of all live. Nothing in the nature exists in itself. All live directly or indirectly interacts. But the homo sapiens for some reason forgets about this simple truth more and more, actively exterminating everything for satisfaction of the excessive requirements around, or, even worse, does it by own nonsense. History remembers when people, caring for pets or the grounds, thoughtlessly exterminated forest predators and other representatives of fauna.
At one time in the USSR war to wolves who allegedly posed threat to livestock farms was declared, even paid big money for each killed of a gray predator. And what turned out? In the wood many animal species began to disappear.
It turned out that the wolf is not just a predator, but also the hospital attendant of the wood which supported in balance an ecosystem in the wood, eating weak and sick animals, not allowing to extend diseases.
And a situation in China when in the country all sparrows who are allegedly destroying rice crops were exterminated. Then hordes of caterpillars practically ate all rice fields, and Chinese had to deliver to the country of these hardworking and useful birdies from Europe again.
It is known that all life forms on Earth make one comprehensive interconnected system. To be convinced of it, it is not even necessary to go anywhere. To that our own organism can serve as the evidence. Quietly and imperceptibly in our digestive tract the whole army of useful bacteria which if it is necessary reflects attacks of enemies (various pathogenic viruses and microbes) works, promotes digestion and formation of necessary vitamins. The person (his body), in turn, gives to these bacteria food and a shelter. Such interaction is called symbiosis (from the Greek symbi ō sis - joint life).
There are three main types of symbiosis: a mutualizm - the cohabitation of two organisms of different types bringing them mutual benefit; commensalism when one lives at the expense of another, without doing it harm; and parasitism when one organism lives and eats to the detriment of another.
it Turns out b that even the soil on which we go every day is not just some lifeless dirt, and the most real live organism! It is the difficult environment with a set of live organisms which serves for development of plants. One kilogram of the soil can contain more than 500 billion bacteria, one billion fungi and to 500 million metaphytes - from insects to worms. Some of these organisms together process organic substances, at the same time nitrogen which they will transform to the connections necessary for plants is emitted. Many microorganisms will transform carbon to carbon dioxide and other connections which are required for photosynthesis.
Lucerne, a clover, peas, soy and others bean, for example, live in the close neighbourhood with bacteria, allowing them “ to infect “ the root system. It does not do to plants harm, and on the contrary, under their influence on roots klubenk where bacteria settle are formed and, increasing by 40 times, become so-called bakteroida. Their task - to turn nitrogen into connections which can be acquired by bean. Bacteria, in turn, receive food from plants.
Fungi or a mold are extremely necessary for life of plants too. Practically all trees, bushes and herbs interact underground with fungi, also “ infecting “ roots and helping plants to absorb moisture and necessary minerals: iron, phosphorus, potassium, zinc and so on. In response to it fungi which from - for lack of a chlorophyll cannot make to themselves food receive carbohydrates from plants.
Beautiful and gentle orchids are to a large extent obliged by the beauty to fungi on which also their reproduction depends. In the wild nature that small as dust seeds of orchids could sprout, they need the help. Then fungi get down to business. They also support quite weak root system of adult plants. According to scientists, fungi “ form a powerful, active power supply system of orchids. Fungi receive a quantity of vitamins and compounds of nitrogen from plants. However the generosity of orchids is not boundless. As soon as fungi begin to expand, going beyond a root and extending to a stalk, orchids by means of natural fungicides slow down their growth “.
But it is only part of invisible processes which happen in the nature. At flowering plants, for example, symbiosis is observed not only in roots, but also over the Earth`s surface.