What the author " told us about; Oedipus “?
the Name of the tsar Oedipus became nearly sign for modern culture: the image which gained special popularity thanks to psychoanalytic theories of Siegmund Freud very famous for any person considering himself more or less cultural and widely-read. The Austrian psychologist used an ancient plot as a convenient form of an explanation of subconscious instincts of the person; at the same time many provisions of the theory of Freud are only interpretation of an old story if not speculation on a plot of the Greek myth. What he told about is an ancient author thanks to whom we know a tragic story of the fivansky tsar?
The new stage in development of drama art is connected with the younger contemporary of Eskhil - Sophocles (497/6 - 406 BC) who made the Greek tragedy of more human: it has the real basis of action rather a will of the person, than will of gods. In the forefront Sophocles always has a person with his sincere experiences, passions, feelings, acts - at times mistaken or even criminal, but sincere in the offenses and delusions. According to Aristotle, Sophocles said that he represents people such what they have to be. There is no place to low passions: the playwright ennobles the person, at the same time forcing the viewer to empathize the hero and to be terrified to his sad destiny.
Sophocles`s creativity is known to us according to seven remained tragedies and fragmentary escaped satirovsky drama “ Pathfinders “ from which fragments became known thanks to the Oksirinkhsky papyrus found in 1912. The Satirovsky drama was written on a plot of a dionisiysky cycle, and the chorus always consisted of satir - kozlopodobny beings in body stockings of corporal color with the huge phalli hanging in front. The play narrates about kidnapping of Apollo`s cows by juvenile Hermes in whose searches with jokes and humourous catchphrases the main characters - satires under leadership of daddy of Silen are engaged.
Possibly, the earliest of Sophocles`s tragedies which reached us was “ Ajax “ (though years of statement of this play are unknown), whose plot belongs to Trojan legends. Ajax is indignant at the Athenian leaders who award an armor of the killed of Akhill not to it, and the Odyssey. On the hero who planned revenge Athena sent madness - and Ajax commits a suicide.
About 442 years BC the Athenian audience saw Sophocles`s tragedy “ Antigone “ (442 BC) telling about tragic death of the daughter of Oedipus (will tell about Oedipus Sophocles`s destiny in other plays). To leave the order of her uncle Kreont without burial a body of her brother Polinik who attacked the hometown operated by other her brother - Eteokl, the main character considers brutal. The tsar Kreont issuing decrees adheres to other point of view, being coordinated with an own clear idea of a political situation and ideology of the state. Antigone violates the order of the tsar Kreont what with pride declares on interrogation. Kreont orders to imprison Antigone alive in a vault. Who is right and on whose party there is a truth? Following songs of chorus, one may say, that for Sophocles truth - the outlines given by gods which are not relative, and are eternal, obvious and invariable. Antigone perishes because he measures a situation by degree of its compliance to enduring norms of life, protecting eternal divine establishments.
Contents of the tragedy “ Electra “ (years of statement are unknown probably 440 - e) generally corresponds “ Hoeforam “ (second part of the trilogy “ Orestey “) Eskhila and “ To Electra “ the younger contemporary Sophocles - unlucky and unloved Euripedes`s audience. Sophocles does central personazhempyesa not Orest, but his sister Electra. She as well as the brother, is eager for fair punishment of mother for murder of the father.
Tragedy “ Oedipus is the tsar “ (420 - e BC) is probably the greatest achievement of Sophocles - the playwright. It is the tragedy of fate: we see horror of Greeks before the highest force which is tragicly influencing human life; extremely full expression gains an impression from patrimonial fault (the matter is that, as it is known was to each Greek knowing myths, Lai`s family - the father Oedipus - was damned for stealing and sexual abuse of the son of the elidsky tsar Pelop by the last - Hrisippa). Oedipus decides to outwit destiny the same as once his parents - Lai and Iokasta wished to outwit destiny: to both them, and it it was foretold that the grown-up Oedipus will kill the father and marries the mother.
Oedipus and Iokasta`s tragedy - the tragedy of the people who dared to resist the highest outline and paid for it. The horror before the highest forces connects to the sympathy to the hero paying for crimes, perfect with it inadvertently here. At the same time, on representations of Greeks, resistance to destiny in itself is a crime. Offenses against destiny are followed by disappearance of knowledge: Oedipus is deprived of original idea of depth of the crime. Therefore the motive of a physical blindness is so important in the final: the hero blinds himself, having begun to see clearly internally, assimilating to other important character of the play - the blind prophet Tiresy, seeing truth the internal eye. The true knowledge is higher than sight of the mere mortal. The chorus comes to a tragic conclusion about a spiritual blindness of the person - to the conclusion granting to the viewer a certain moral conclusion from a plot:
Life human, alas, anything! whether
In life of happiness was reached by whom?
will Only think: “ I Am happy! “ -
I loses happiness. your Rock teaches
O zlostchastny Oedipus! Having Nowadays comprehended your fate
, I will tell: there is no
on light of happy.
Sophocles draws heroic shape of the person who is not evading from the public exposure of creating a fair trial over by itself - and in it its original greatness. In the play final, despite a fate celebration, the Athenian viewer together with the hero and chorus had to experience the greatest regeneration, unconditional moral satisfaction from the majestic image of fight, sufferings and the terrible peripetia which happened to the main character.
Possibly, after “ Oedipus - the tsar “ the tragedy " is created; Trakhinyanki “ narrating about Heracles`s death. Tragedy " plot; Filoktet “ (409 BC) it is based on argossky myths: to Greeks the prophecy according to which Troy cannot be taken without Heracles`s onions and Filoktet owning it who is once thrown by Greeks the patient on the desert island of Lemnos was conducted; we see how smart Odysseus deception implements the plan for return of the unfortunate tsar to a camp of the Greek troops.
Two decades later after statement “ Oedipus - the tsar “ Sophocles addresses destiny of the fivansky tsar again. In the tragedy “ Oedipus in Colon “ it is told about wanderings of Oedipus who found eventually to himself a haven in the city of Colon, the suburb of Athens. It is patronized by Theseus promising to Oedipus protection against everyone who would like to take away violently it from here. A number of episodes (Kreont`s attempt to violently take away Oedipus to Thebes; requests of the son Polinik to rise on his party in war against other son - Eteokl, Oedipus`s refusal and a prediction to them tragic death of both brothers) prepares a final scene of wonderful death of the tsar Oedipus. He dies cleared of filth, forgiven by gods, reconciled with the world and people. The tragedy becomes as if the will of Sophocles. Tragedy “ Oedipus in Colon “ it was put on the stage in 401 after death of the playwright who died in 406, his grandson - Sophocles Mladshim.