What does the alcoholic differ from the drunkard in?
of the Reasons for writing of this article three. Probably, we too literally apprehended the legendary phrase of the prince of Vladimir “ Veseliye of Russia is Piety “ and now in the country several million chronic alcoholics and habitually drinking, and it most other diseases and wars together inflict the evil.
Admissible daily doses of alcohol make, according to most of authors, up to 50 ml for men (a floor - liter of beer or 75 ml of vodka) and to 24 ml for women (330 ml of beer or 50 g of vodka). However for domestic realities these figures seem, alas, ridiculous. Unlike drug addiction, the subject manages accurately and underestimated by many mass media and representatives of administration.
At last, alcoholism - not an electric trauma, it begins very slowly. It is easy to understand, than the person at whom the pathological addiction is written on a face and all the rest suffers. And, nevertheless, in something alcoholism is similar to pregnancy (sorry): either it is, or it is absent. The third is not given.
We will be defined in concepts. I understand the undisciplined alcohol intake bringing to unhealthy as alcoholism (a trauma when falling), family (scandal after a party) and other public (to fall a victim of street robbers) lives to consequences. It is a problem, defect, and improves measures distsiplinarno - administrative. One of geniuses of psychiatry E. Krepelin defined alcoholism so: “ it is painful dependence when the new portion of alcohol is used, for the present there is an action of the portion accepted earlier “. Shortly and it is clear.
Doctors make the diagnosis to dependence, proceeding, first of all, from criteria of the international classification: it can be put only in the presence of three or more signs arising during certain time last year:
1. Strong requirement or need to accept substance.
2. Violation of ability to control substance reception (a dosage, the beginning, the end of the use).
3. The characteristic of this substance clinically outlined syndrome of cancellation (abstinency) or use of the same or similar substance for simplification or prevention of symptoms of cancellation (“ opokhmeleniye “) .
4. Increase in a dose of the substance necessary for achievement of the effect which is earlier made by lower doses (tolerance increase).
5. The progressing oblivion of other interests in favor of the substance use, increase in time necessary for its acquisition, reception or restoration after effect of substance.
6. Substance use continuation, despite obvious harmful consequences.
The system is documentary accurate, but for the person without vocational education it is correct to use it not so and it is easy. Domestic traditional classification is simpler and includes three points:
1. Change of reaction to alcohol - the motive of intoxication is psychologically obscure, the bigger quantity is drunk, degree of intoxication is heavier, the person begins to drink in unseemly places and with unseemly people or alone secretly, after binge it is required to time for restoration more.
2. Mental dependence - conscious desire of intoxication and avoiding of sobriety. There is a phenomenon known to psychologists as “ shift of motive on the purpose “ - the person goes, let us assume, allegedly on a visit, and actually - to get drunk, or drinks at the slightest signs of sincere discomfort, justifying with it the fact of intoxication.
3. Dependence physical (abstinency) - is figuratively called “ a turning point in the biography of each alcoholic “. Everything told above belonged to 1 - y illness stages, on 2 - y the person cannot how many - nibud it is acceptable to function, without having freshened the nip. It - not that feeling of weakness and an indisposition which can happen with any touched the measure (“ gloomy morning “) . Here the person wishes to freshen the nip and changes after that in the eyes. Here it is possible to refer also true hard drinkings to exhaustion (unlike “ pseudo-hard drinkings “ the day off). If the person brought himself to such stage, then, even abstaining from alcohol for years and once “ having broken “ he will not begin to drink “ on five drops “ and will at once renew an opokhmeleniye and hard drinkings.
Can point to formation of dependence also some, at first sight, small, but very informative signs: transition from low alcohol drinks on strong, the use of drinks of poor quality, up to substitutes (“ and the muck is drunk from economy “) increase of episodes with loss of an event row from memory, lack of appetite and vomiting in the mornings, delay for work and impossibility is correct to organize it, increase of injuries and accidents, excess use parfyumerno - cosmetics (spirits, chewing gum). Very informatively behavior of the person at a table: “ warming up “ before an expected party, “ symptom of the first shot glass “ - the person drinks, without waiting for the first toast, “ circle advancing symptom “ - drinks more often than the others. In conversation on alcoholic subjects emotionally quickens, on a face there is an involuntary smile, eyes “ maslyanet “ saliva sglatyvatsya.
But most important and terrible is a lack of self-criticism, denial of the fact of painful dependence and underestimation of weight of a problem. Usually the alcoholic, without reflecting, says that he is able to give up acquaintance with “ green serpent “ at any time, but for some reason there are thousands of justifications for postponement of this moment.
Everything told I do not urge to diagnose all is universal, it is better to begin with itself. It is just necessary to know that if the person in principle is fragile, then the alcoholic also is extremely unreliable and unpredictable in the majority of aspects of life.