When in Russia paper money appeared? Today it is rather difficult to us to present
that once coins were money only. Of course, it was very inconvenient. You only present - to deliver where - or 10000 rubles a coin, it was necessary to involve two carts!
Therefore for simplification of money turnover Catherine II in 1769 published the manifesto on issue of paper bank notes. Actually it were payment receipts - they could be exchanged in special banks for a copper coin (in that quantity which appeared in the bank note).
It is necessary to tell that protection of this newly appeared money corresponded to technical capabilities of that time: watermark, relief stamping, drawn letters, signatures of officials. The letterpress printing was carried out in one - black - paint. In difference from today`s, that money was unilateral, i.e. the back had no graphic elements.
Then, in 1786, there were bank notes of a new sample - 5 and 10 rubles. That semiliterate Russians could distinguish money among themselves, was decided to paint brand new bank notes in different colors - the five-ruble note became red, and ten-ruble - blue.
But the beginning of war with Napoleon, except other troubles, brought with itself also distribution of forgeries which were extremely difficult to be distinguished as often they looked even more solidly, than the real money as were printed on the best paper. Unless the signature of the director of bank was executed in the typographical way too, and the text sometimes “ decorated “ numerous spelling errors that owing to illiteracy of a commonalty suited only counterfeiters.
The Minister of Finance Guryev of that time hurried to the emperor Alexander I with the report on need of creation of the special enterprise for production of bank notes. So in 1818 Expedition of preparation of the state papers appeared.
the Money produced in the new method were much more difficult: the watermark became more quality, bank notes had a grid, drawings were carried out by engravers. But bank notes still remained unilateral.
Bilateral the Russian paper money became during Kankrin`s reform called by name the Minister of Finance of that time. The essence of reform (1839 - 1843) is that Kankrin declared the main monetary unit silver ruble, and established in a binding to it a course for paper money which began to call the state bank notes. At the same time all bank notes which were issued earlier finally depreciated by then and were withdrawn from circulation.
Also appearance of money changed - as it was already noted, they became bilateral. On the back extraction from the manifesto on bank notes which declared that these tickets are provided " was printed; all property of the state and unceasing, at any time, exchange on a hard coin “. Besides, new money - of 1, 3, 5, 25, 50 and 100 rubles - became even more protected from fakes.
In 1866 at the press of paper money for the first time in Russia the metallography is used. On money portraits of the Russian princes appear: on 5 - a ruble banknote - Dmitry Donskoy`s portrait, on 10 - ruble - Mikhail Fedorovich, on 25 - ruble - Alexey Mikhaylovich, and on 100 - ruble - Peter I.
And in 1892 the weaver`s engineer Ivan Ivanovich Orlov made discovery which became really critical in production of paper money. Orlov thought up how it is possible to apply at the same time when printing the bank note four paints (before paint were put serially: at first one color, then - another). The Oryol press which is applied still became one of the main protective signs of paper money.