From where the Russian customs went?
History of the Russian customs begin with the end of the 10th century, with the first mentions of trade duties which laid over in the Old Russian state consumer goods on the way of their following from the producer to the consumer. The most ancient of them, “ it is washed “ it is mentioned in the Russian truth of Yaroslav the Wise (the 11th century). In the middle of the 13th century Mongol - Tatars enter the duty - a tamga. The Tamga (from Turkic) meant a property sign, a brand or the press. Over time the name passed it to all collecting which received the name customs and to places of their collecting, customs.
From the middle of the 16th century there is a centralization of customs affairs, the legislative base is created, the customs policy is improved.
In the 17th century the state intervention in the sphere of the external economic relations considerably amplified. Many goods were forbidden to import. Much they were at the exclusive disposal of the state.
The New trade charter of 1667 which included articles concerning types and the sizes of both external, and internal customs duties, the structure of customs became a turning point in the history of customs affairs.
The era of Petrovsky transformations is characterized only by a unilateral fiscal orientation of the Russian customs policy.
Distinctive feature of a customs tariff during Catherine II`s reign was the fact that:
- all import goods which in Russia were not made were allowed for duty-free import or imposed insignificant tax;
- goods which production was in embryo were subject to very small taxation;
- the import duties on the raw materials forming a basis for a domestic production also were very small;
- high duty were assessed goods which production in the state was already mastered.
Since 1811 the customs mechanism of regulation of foreign economic activity began to work, the customs policy was formed in close connection with development of foreign trade and the industry, and was strongly coordinated to domestic and foreign policy.
Gradually customs legislation reached the greatest development, began to meet the international standards. But world war, the first years of revolution and civil war finally brought to naught both a foreign trade turnover, and functions of the Russian customs.
Reforming of foreign trade was started by already Provisional government. And after October revolution, in 1924, there was a Customs Charter of the USSR - the first codified act on customs affairs. Control over became the main task of customs authorities it is export - import operations within the state monopoly of foreign trade.
Further the principle of the state monopoly even more amplified, and the customs system began to be used as body of registration and control over transportation of freight and passengers, but not as a component of the mechanism of regulation of foreign trade.
The period since 1986 till present is characterized by basic changes in the place and a role of customs authorities of the former USSR. In the CIS countries own customs authorities which from the very beginning of steel bodies of economic regulation were created.
During various periods of history statesmen for customs set the most various tasks. At the same time the importance of customs policy for foreign trade also changed.
During some periods foreign policy and other interests of the state pushed customs methods the background, and the customs became help in the solution of foreign policy and military problems. During other periods, on the contrary, the external economic tasks became main, the customs turned into the main tool of their decision and customs methods or stimulated development of a social production, or promoted increase in the income of the state. External and internal political, military, economic, social and other living conditions of the state were the factors and conditions defining various purposes of customs policy.
The certain state is almost not able to make all production necessary for it, especially at a high technological level and the required quality. For this reason many businessmen try to enter foreign markets that allows them to expand production and to get big profit. Thanks to foreign economic activity the state has an opportunity to gain income in the budget, to buy the necessary equipment, raw materials, materials, progressive technologies for updating of the economy, providing the population; to export the goods; to realize the foreign policy, coordinating it with other directions of the activity. And in streamlining of this activity the customs possesses not the last role.