What is aggression?
All history of mankind convincingly proves that aggression is an integral part of life of the personality and society. Moreover, aggression has the powerful attractive force and property of infectivity - most of people in words rejects aggression, and at the same time widely show it in the everyday life.
In translation from Latin “ aggression “ means “ attack “. Now term “ aggression “ it is used extremely widely. This phenomenon is connected also with negative emotions (for example, anger), and with negative motives (for example, aspiration to do much harm), and also with negative installations (for example, racial prejudices) and destructive actions.
In psychology understand the tendency (aspiration) which is shown in real behavior or imagination with the purpose to subordinate themselves others or to dominate over them as aggression. Aggression can be as positive, serving to vital interests and a survival, and negative, focused on satisfaction of an aggressive inclination in itself.
Causing suffering (harm) to the victim (hostile aggression), and aggression use as way of achievement of other purpose (tool aggression) can be the purpose of aggression as actually. Aggression is directed to external objects (people or objects) or to itself (a body or the personality). Special danger to society is constituted by the aggression directed to other people.
In spite of the fact that term “ aggression “ it is usually used for designation of destructive intentions, it is extended also to more positive manifestations, for example the activity generated by ambition. Similar actions designate as self-affirmation to emphasize that they are induced by not hostile motivation. They are shown in the form of the competition, aspiration to achievements, irony, sports meets etc. the conflictness, malignant gossip, pressure, coercion, negative estimation, threats or use of physical force are considered as
as the Most habitual manifestations of aggression. The latent forms of aggression are expressed in leaving from contacts, inaction with the purpose to do much harm to someone, infliction of harm to themselves and suicide.
One of the most intensive and difficult aggressive affects, undoubtedly, hatred acts. The most important purpose of the person captured by hatred is destruction of object of aggression. Under certain conditions hatred and desire of revenge can inadequately amplify.
In more “ lungs “ cases hatred gets a form of rigid moral bans and the aggressive statement of own ideals. Also hatred can be shown in passionate desire to possess the power, to subordinate or humiliate. At more severe forms sadistic bents - desire to force the object to suffer with receiving pleasure from it are shown. An extreme form of manifestation of hatred - aspiration to destruction (murder) or radical depreciation of all and all. Hatred can be expressed also in suicide, for example, when I am identified with hated object and self-destruction becomes the only way of its elimination.
The relations with hated object are of special value for the identity of an aggressor. At heart he at the same time seeks also for destruction of object of the hatred and for preservation of the relations with it.
We will try to specify nature of interrelation between aggression and aggressive behavior. It is obvious that experience of aggression by the person not unambiguously leads to destructive actions. On the other hand, making violence, the person can be in a condition of both extraordinary emotional excitement, and full composure. Besides absolutely not necessarily the aggressor has to hate the victim. Many people inflict suffering on the relatives - those to whom are attached and who is sincerely loved.
In real life in general happens quite difficult to define whether the behavior of the person his internal aggressive tendency goes or it depends on any other factors. For example, the three-year-old child during medical examination after several unpleasant procedures can not only refuse survey, but also is active resist actions of adults, expressing rage and even rage. Whether such behavior of the helpless kid aggressively - is hostile? How to regard behavior of the teenager who is aggressively protesting against aspiration of adults to limit his independence? At last, whether normally the fact that adults behave expressly aggressively in a situation of real threat to their wellbeing? Answers to similar questions depend on the analysis of additional personal and situational factors, for example importance (including dangers) a concrete situation for the person, his ability to realize the behavior and to control the feelings, focus of behavior, degree of the harm done to them.
In the substantial plan as the leading signs of aggressive behavior it is possible to consider its such manifestations as:
- the expressed aspiration to domination over people and to their use in the purposes;
- a tendency to destruction;
- an orientation on infliction of harm to surrounding people;
- tendency to violence (causing pain).
Generalizing all listed signs, it is possible to say that the aggressive behavior of the personality means any actions with the expressed motive of domination. And the violence (physical, sexual, emotional) is the most serious manifestation and an undesirable consequence of aggressive behavior.
Any society is forced to take special measures for restraint of violence. As the most effective of them it is necessary to recognize national traditions and group rituals (games, holidays, ceremonies) allowing the specific personality to integrate the aggressive potential and to express it socially - the acceptable ways. Huge value also has presence at society of enough positive examples, for example national heroes or vital idols.