How to choose dairy drinks? Fermented milk products we often buy
just because their taste and own state after their consumption is pleasant. Curdled milk, koumiss and kefir were drunk long since with pleasure by those in whom whole milk caused unpleasant rumbling in stomachs. Then already scientists explained that lactic microorganisms split lactose and, partly, casein in such a way that they are acquired much better. The same useful microbes produce the lactic acid suppressing putrefactive processes, destroying microbes harmful and, respectively, clearing away the place for the healthy microflora living in intestines.
In recent years the range of fermented milk products on counters considerably extended. The drinks earlier used only in certain regions with the West were available for bulk selling world-wide popular yogurts, from scientifically - research laboratories - bifidoprodukta came. Today the choice of fermented milk products is influenced not only by the personal taste which got used to traditional drinks in this district but also the general erudition of the consumer, and his pliability to advertizing promises. Therefore there is a sense to understand a variety of these products and to make a conscious choice.
Types of drinks
the Most available and widespread fermented milk product - curdled milk. It can be received, having just put milk for turning sour to the warm place: lactic streptococci which provide process of a zakvashivaniye will get to milk for turning sour even from air. However more competent way of souring of milk - addition of several spoons of the same product from a yesterday`s portion or sour cream: then ferment turns out purer and gives a better product.
Curdled milk from baked milk is called varenets, curdled milk from baked milk with addition of cream - fermented baked milk. The main agent of fermentation in them the same that in curdled milk, but taste differs in connection with the transformations happening to dairy sugar and protein in the course of long thermal treatment.
For a zakvashivaniye of mechnikovsky curdled milk except a lactic streptococcus the Bulgarian stick - the same is used that participates in production of yogurts. Yogurt differs from mechnikovsky curdled milk in the fact that it is in addition given more viscous consistence by means of powdered milk and skvashivat at the increased temperatures.
“ Southern " curdled milks; , such as yogurts, are fermented by the combined ferment containing the lactic streptococci, lactic sticks and yeast capable to ferment dairy sugar. It gives them additional shades of taste.
Ayran or the thane are fermented by means of yeast, in the course of a zakvashivaniye to milk add salt and water, and to ayran - also a basil.
More difficult structure at kefir and koumiss . The structure of the kefiric fungi applied in production of kefir except lactic streptococci and yeast, includes some more species of lactobacilli.
One of them - an acidophilic stick which constantly lives not only in ferment, but also in a human body, being part of normal microflora of a gastrointestinal tract. It can be considered as the first and the most traditional of probiotics (i.e. microorganisms peculiar to intestinal microflora of the person) used in sour-milk production. A native habitat of other lactic bacteria is milk, but not intestines of the person through which they go as transit goods and have the useful effect rather indirectly, through actually dairy product.
Acidophilic stick was the first microbe which (at the beginning of the 20th century) began to be added to dairy products. So the acidophilic milk and acidophilus milk applied at treatment of diarrhea and other intestinal frustration turned out. Then the acidophilic stick became an obligatory component of koumiss of industrial production.
Koumiss becomes not only from mare`s today, but also from cow`s milk and is characterized by rather high content of alcohol. Alcohol is formed at mixed molochnokislo - spirit fermentation, and it is a lot of it because in the course of production of koumiss sugar is added to milk.
Bifidobacteria did not live in dairy products to the second half of the last century: their usual place of residence - intestines of the person from where they are also got by manufacturers bifidozakvasok. But they were the most useful at treatment zheludochno - intestinal frustration, food allergy and for increase of nonspecific immunity. At first release of bifidopreparat was mastered by pharmacologists, then also functional food with bifidobacteria appeared. Standards of the majority of the countries do not demand to specify what strains of bacteria were used by production of a product though the international organization for the food and agriculture (FAO) recommends to do it.
The end of the 20th century was marked by emergence of a new type of functional food and additives to dairy products - of prebiotics . Unlike probiotics, these substances do not apply for occupying intestines of the person, but stimulate growth of own microflora of their consumer. The most widespread types of prebiotichesky additives to dairy products - of a laktuloz and inulin .
Occurs national opinion that the name of fermented milk product with a prefix bio - means its special “ naturalness “. Actually, the live microorganisms which are traditionally applied in sour-milk production have to be also as a part of usual kefir, yogurt, curdled milk etc. The name of dairy product with a prefix bio - according to GOST P 51917 - 2002/2003, means: in the course of production live cultures of bifidobacteria or other pro-biotic microorganisms - just those which our great-grandfathers did not use are entered into a product of processing of milk (behind the only exception of an acidophilic stick as a part of kefiric fungi).
As for products where the live microflora is absent, they differ in the main name which is not coinciding with traditional (not yogurt, and a yogurtosh, not kefir, and a kefirchik), and also specification “ termizirovanny “ t. e undergone additional thermal treatment.
There is in national consciousness also a negativist installation: say, all microorganisms consumed with bioproducts perish on the way to intestines and advantage cannot bring. Actually, the obligatory requirement to the probiotics added to dairy products - the high kislotoustoychivost and sufficient concentration allowing bacteria to pass through an acid barrier of a stomach and to get into intestines. So to help to correct and keep health to someone maybe bifidokefir .
The opinion which is actively advanced by advertizing: the separate species of bacteria used in popular trademarks of yogurts affect a human body especially well. However for today there are no enough reliable data about advantage of one species of bifidobacteria over others. All bifidobacteria work positively at the time of stay in intestines together with dairy product, but survival of the consumed strains of microorganisms in a human body remains a problem. It depends on specific features of the consumer.
Many scientists consider that those species of useful microbes which are allocated at the population in the region where this consumer was born and spent early years get accustomed better. Therefore also data of researches of advantage of consumption of a concrete product should not be trusted completely if they were carried out only in one district.
In 2001 recommendations of the Food and agricultural organization UN (FAO) " are issued; The Probiotics in food “. Authors of recommendations, recognizing advantage of probiotics, notice that for today statistical data on each concrete strain “ useful bacteria “ and to their action as a part of dairy products is collected insufficiently. As for effect “ all-strengthening “ according to experts of FAO, only the first steps are taken in its studying. Anyway, consumption of probiotics cannot replace the balanced diet and physical exercises.
Registering pharmacological bifidopreparata and recommending to consume bifidoprodukta, physicians, as a rule, change from time to time appointments, choosing the strain of useful bacteria, most suitable for the patient, as a trial and error method. Most likely, it will be that strain which was present at its organism in the first years of life, during formation of immune system and therefore does not cause rejection and can get accustomed in an organism again. The same way is the most rational at independent consumption of bifidoprodukt. It makes sense to use a product, for example, within a month, watching the state, and then to try following.
The microflora which is the most suitable the person is his own, created in years lives. If it is not completely destroyed by antibiotics and substitute food, then the most useful way of its maintenance will be not a settling by new species of bifidobacteria, and consumption of prebiotics. The pectins added to dairy products of a laktuloz and inulin, but also , organic acids, vitamins - i.e. all components of the balanced food for which continuous consumption of vegetables, fruit and traditional fermented milk products is obligatory concern to them not only in large quantities.