Against whom Russians at Nepryadva`s river battled? The East and the West of
Before continuing the narration about battle at Nepryadva`s river, we will address a little geography. Mamayev a camp settled down in the Crimea, from the zolotoordynsky center in the Volga region it was separated “ whole one thousand versts “. We know about it, thanking “ To Memorable records of the Armenian manuscripts of the 14th century “ published in 1950 in Yerevan (in Armenian). According to this source, Mamay till 1380 was a master of the Crimea.
But, except it, in the Crimea there were also settlements which were actively trading (and not only) genoeses who were here far not playing a supporting role what fortresses of Balaklava, Feodosiya and the Pike perch testify to. But to appear in this region, Italians passed possession of Byzantium, having closed for it the Crimea and by that having strongly weakened its power. Italians reached an ascendent position on the Black Sea.
The Italian expansion on the coast of the Crimea had, except a strategic objective, also commercial. Practically all slave trade was concentrated in their hands. Italians, apparently, quickly found a common language with ordynets. Besides, Italians in the Crimea appeared in direct contact with a big Armenian colony. Armenians, as well as Slavs, - sons of Orthodox Church (some dogmatic disagreements can be omitted here).
Planting of Catholicism in the local environment began. Armenians were in disagreement forced to move from Kafy to the compatriots, in other parts of the Crimea. “ Possibly, it caused the necessity of the basis during this period - in 1358 - near the Old Crimea of the well-known Armenian monastery Surb - Hach (the Sacred Cross) “.
Activity of Italians in the Crimea had far-reaching consequences. Academician M. N. Tikhomirov: “... Italians (in the Russian sources - “ fryag “) appear in Moscow and in the north of Russia already in the first half of the 14th century as Dmitry Donskoy`s diploma shows. The grand duke refers to an old regime, “ duty “ existing at his grandfather Ivan Kalita, that is till 1340. The grand duke favors “ Pechora “ certain Andrey Fryazin and his uncle Matvei. Both “ fryazin “ involved on the far North, to Pechora probably searches of expensive and quick-selling goods of the Middle Ages: furs, morzhovy canines and hunting birds. Commercial activity of the merchants buying from the grand duke goods for a big payment did not constitute any danger to Russia. But emergence them even in the far Russian North testifies about strategic “ tendency “ Crimean “ fryag “.
As we know from “ Legends “ Mother went on Moscow to expel the Russian princes and “ to sit down on their place “. On this reckless step of Mamaya it is obvious “ moved “ genoeses, because Great Khans of the Golden Horde never put before themselves a similar task.
Possibly for this reason Moscow in the person of Dmitry Ivanovich for the first time in two hundred fifty years of the Mongolian dominion decided to accept open battle. The fact that Saint Sergey of Radonezh long time tried to stop massacre is remarkable. However in the eve when the purposes of Mamaya became extremely clear, the great Russian Saint “ rechit “ absolutely other also blessed Dmitry on a secha.
The Battle of Kulikovo had huge, truly “ universal " value;. It agrees “ To Zadonshchina “ “ a shibla glory to the Iron Gate and to Karanachi, to Rome and to Cafe by the sea, and to Tornavu and an ottola to Tsargrad “ .
We will notice three " directions; glories “: on the East, that is in “ Tatar - the Mongolian world “ - to Derbent and Urgench (the capital of Khwarezm); on the West, to the Catholic world - to Rome through Cafu; on the orthodox South - through Bulgaria (Tyrnovo - its ancient capital) to Constantinople (Tsargrad).
Can seem someone exaggeration “ universal “ value of the Kulikovsky secha. But it is possible to address also other sources. About these events the famous Persian historian Nizam - hell - Shami`s dynes left comments. And he created in the city of Shiraz located on 1500 versts to the south of Urgench, near the Indian Ocean. Wrote about defeat of Mamaya “ Cairo wise man “ Arab Ibn Halduna.
Did not hold back it and the western sources. So, works of the contemporary of the described events of the monk - the Franciscan and chronicler Dietmar Luebexki are known. In the well-known composition “ Vandaliya “ the German historian Albert Kranz it is readable: “ At this time between Russians and Tatars there was the greatest in memory of people battle. Winners are the Russian, having taken considerable production... But not for long Russians rejoiced to this victory because Tatars, having connected to Lithuanians, directed for the Russians who were already coming back, and production which was lost took away also many of Russians, having plunged, killed “ .
We will notice that Albert Kranz held a post “ dean of a spiritual kapitul “ Hamburg, that is was the second person in the city. He received data on fight, according to some data, from the Hanseatic merchants who were actively trading with Novgorod. In Kranz`s message it is about attack of the Lithuanian army on the Novgorod group which was coming back to Novgorod along the Lithuanian boundary. It is possible that also the additional instructions of Kranz are fair that the part of the Tatars running from Kulikovo field also joined the Lithuanian groups.
Skirmish with Novgorodians strongly weakened power of the Lithuanian army. Let`s notice that Albert Kranz representing the western point of view was obviously disappointed with a brilliant victory of the Russian weapon. Meanwhile among Mongols, not to mention the orthodox world, the Russian Victoria was apprehended nearly “ with a bang “.
Perhaps, some readers will apprehend as a certain strangeness or even absurd of association in 1370 - x years “ educated “ The West with “ wild “ an Asian Mamayevy Horde in a campaign to Russia. But there is also another, the latest - and not less bright - an example: association of the West with the Turkish empire in the Crimean war against Russia in 1850 - x years (and again - “ " hub; - Crimea!) . And advances with Turkey in time russko - the Turkish company after the First and Second World wars? And “ closing of eyes “ on genocide of Armenians, Assyrians, Greeks and others “ gyaur? “
“ Comparison of these events is capable to clear a lot of things. And the such situation can arise and presently. A Battle of Kulikovo - not only glory of last times, but also a lesson on the future “ (V. Kozhinov).