Whether Ivan Serko wrote the letter to the Turkish sultan or Who was represented by Ilya Repin?
Early in the morning on August 11, 1680 by a breakfast unexpectedly did not leave well-known Zaporizhia koshevy the ataman Ivan Dmitriyevich Serko. Recently the legendary Cossack often was ill (to him went already 71 - y year) and disposed to make to himself a domovina (coffin) in which he went to bed every evening. “ Behaves in a queer way Dida! “ - Cossacks smiled, but did not dare to contradict...
Sent to “ Dida “ the Cossack cried so that he could lift up all steppe! At once it became clear to all: the soul of the legendary ataman to those regions where there is neither human sorrow, nor problems flew away...
Whom was this person by whose name some more decades Turks frightened the disobedient children if those excessively got naughty? The master of strategy and tactics of prompt blows, when absolutely any role was played by neither the opponent`s number, nor his skill? They say that during stay at a position of the koshevy ataman (and he was elected the 8th time in a row!) Ivan Serko carried out about 100 various battles, and in one (!) did not get beaten …
Courage and honor - above all!Ivan Dmitriyevich in 1610, most likely, in the Cossack settlement of Meref (nowadays Kharkiv region) Was born
. Since early years it was brought up to Sechi, was desperate small. But, apparently, had no notable origin because in the Cossack colonels it had to make the way long enough. Though initially in the Cossack community courage and valor so with interest possessing these qualities were appreciated, even the ordinary Cossack had an opportunity for one and a half - two decades to climb an office ladder.
Of course, first all activity of future koshevy ataman took place in a shadow Bol of considerable people. When Bogdan Khmelnytsky lifted revolt against Poles and invited to himself Serk`s group (such inducement of a surname still exists in Ukrainian), he counted that Ivan Dmitriyevich will follow for it up to the end. But that so up to the end also did not support the great hetman, having flatly refused to swear on fidelity to the Moscow tsar. Then hid in Sechi and, in fact, hid …
for the time being But, eventually, to live in society and to be free from society it did not turn out - on fidelity I reign all was necessary to swear-. How Ivan Dmitriyevich was elected for the first time the koshevy ataman. By then he already celebrated the semicentennial anniversary.
Everything changed as if in a kaleidoscope
the Second half of the 17th century in the history of Zaporizhia Sechi was not the quietest period. Not only that in relation to “ Moskovia “ not always could understand: where the and where the stranger, so also traditionally Turks raised the heads from time to time. East neighbor had to be pacified nearly annually. And under Ivan Serko`s banners always with great pleasure there were all who can hold the weapon. Because knew: koshevy the ataman of the will never give out, and in case of a rich gain everything will divide on justice. Here only the relations with hetmen at it not always developed successfully: the last though respected dashing Serk, but on the other hand could not always pacify these outlaws. And hetmen who after Bogdan Khmelnytsky`s death changed as gloves (it is enough to tell that only one son of Khmelnytskyi - Yury - became a hetman three times) could not understand on whose party there will be Serko tomorrow.
And if to consider that after division of Ukraine the institute of both the hetman Levoberezhnoy, and the hetman of Right-bank Ukraine was entered, it will become clear that the ataman - that figure which played a very important role in domestic policy was koshevy.
In 1672 when the hetman of Left-bank Ukraine Demyan Mnogogreshny was suspected of negotiations with the hetman of Right-bank Ukraine Pyotr Doroshenko (the last was a vassal of Turkey), the tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich decided to displace Mnogogreshny and to appoint Ivan Samoylovich to his post. On the Cossack foremen to Sechi, led by Ivan Serko, acted sharply against. They insisted on the candidate of the koshevy ataman. Business ended with the fact that Ivan Dmitriyevich instead of a hetman mace received on hands … shackles, and was banished by the tsar to Siberia where served sentence in Tobolsk.
By the way, the hetman Samoylovich was in the head of Left-bank Ukraine within 15 years until he was schemed by the most ambiguous Ukrainian character of those times - Ivan Mazepa. It was not so difficult to make it. In - the first, Samoylovich was taken a dislike by Vasily Vasilyevich Golitsyn heading at that time the Ambassadorial decree, and in - the second, and citizens the hetman incited against himself the fact that was the real despot, haughty, greedy and belonging to all with big conceit! As a result Mazepa became a hetman, and Samoylovich appeared in Tobolsk where died. To be fair it is necessary to tell that by then Ivan Serko was not alive … for a long time And to Siberia rang out with
, and koshevy it was chosenSerko`s
spent not a lot of time in Siberia, was returned to Ukraine where again it was elected the koshevy ataman and carried out several successful campaigns on Turks, than caused big indignation from the last. The Turkish sultan Mehmet IV in 1676 wrote to Zaporozhetses the angry letter with the requirement to be given immediately on which Cossacks wrote the. Signed this letter, on a legend, Ivan Serko. It is not really long, but abounds with an offensive language so entirely I will not give it. I will tell only one: such juicy comparisons still need to be invented! In Ukraine there was only one brilliant master of such juicy expressions - Ivan Kotlyarevsky. And the essence of the letter is reduced to one: never Cossacks will take off a cap before infidels!
From the date of Ivan Serko`s death there passed exactly two centuries when Ilya Repin conceived to paint the picture “ The Zaporizhia Cossacks write the letter to the Turkish sultan “. “ Nearly an every day the father read aloud about Zaporozhetses on - malorossk, in verses, and told about Sechi, - Vera Repina, the artist`s daughter remembered. - Then he painted the picture “ Zaporozhets writing the answer to the sultan “. We already knew gradually all heroes: the ataman Serko with a gray-haired mustache, Cossack Golota - “ is not afraid of either fire, or a sword, or a bog “ Taras Bulbu with Ostap and Andry and smith Vakulu. “ We also from Zaporozhetses, - it was thought to me, - the father from Malorossiya, and Zaporozhetses - the only courageous, free people! “
To tell that work went well, it is impossible: the artist repeatedly ruthlessly erased already written, changing both poses of Cossacks, and characters. Having begun work to Abramtzevo, he continued it in Ukraine where arrived by the invitation of the Ukrainian historian Dmitry Ivanovich Yavornitsky which had the richest collection of both ancient clothes, and not less ancient weapon of Zaporizhia Sechi.
For characters far did not go...
Very long to Ilya Repin did not manage to create uniform harmony in a picture, an okoltsovka as some creative people are expressed. “ What was not only here! There was also a horse muzzle; there was also a back in a shirt; was laughing - a magnificent figure, - everything did not satisfy until I stopped on this hefty simple back - it was pleasant to me, and with it I already quickly brought all picture into full harmony... And now at least hundred thousand correspondents picked me to pieces, I would keep the own opinion; I am deeply convinced that now in this picture it is not necessary neither to add, nor to diminish any stroke “.
From whom wrote these picturesque figures of the maestro? Most often from the Ukrainian friends. Already mentioned Dmitry Yavornitsky is a clerk. The thin Cossack in a high black cap who looks gloomy - Vasily Vasilyevich Tarnovsky, the famous collector kazatsko - the Ukrainian antiquity. Red as fire, the Russian Nikishka, Tarnovsky`s driver etc. of
It is impossible to tell that the picture was at once met “ with a bang “. But all great is learned in comparison. And it is not casual at the phrase “ Zaporizhia Cossack “ we are occurred by Ilya Efimovich Repin`s picture …