Birthday of mountaineering or What duet for the first time subdued Mont Blanc?
on August 7, 1786 on the highest top of the Alps - Mont Blanc - there began the ascension two French: doctor Michel Pakkar and professional mining guide Jacques Balma. The fact that the peak will be conquered sooner or later, all knew. But it as very beautiful and whimsical girl, was available not to everyone. In it there is nothing surprising: to steam of decades climbers approached top both so, and so, but one mountain tracks were too abrupt, others - led up a blind alley, the third - were even inaccessible to mountain rams. But unless footpaths to maiden heart do not happen such impassable? Be persistent and are stubborn - this council of great William Shakespeare.
Meanwhile the first attempts to subdue Mont Blanc were made for quarter of the century to the described events when in the picturesque settlement of Shamoni appeared 20 - summer Horace Saussure. He was so bewitched by unearthly beauty of Mont Blanc that right there lit up idea to conquer this peak. But as the person sane, Horace understood that to climb up the peak, it is necessary to know what footpath there to go.
Money solve not everything!
Saussure addressed locals and with surprise learned that none of them know a way on top. Perhaps, once this way was also known, but in the middle of the 18th century all peasants declared to the visiting guest firm “ Is not present “. Without knowing the ford the mountain top is better not to be put even in water, and here.
But future scientist found how it seemed to him, a way out, having declared a reward to the fact that he will agree to rise with it by Mont Blanc. But persons interested for some reason were not. Then he doubled a rate - and again was forced to refuse the plan - and for such money the number of persons interested did not increase. And only 15 years when one generation was replaced by another later, there were desperate daredevils. But, having conquered not the highest peak on the ways to Mont Blanc, a way to the most top point all of them - did not find.
It seemed, over time the desire without fail to conquer peak at Horace Saussure has to come to naught. Especially as he seriously pursued science, achieved quite good progress in studying of botany, became at first professor, and then and the academician, lived in Geneva. But youthful attachment to top everything is haunted. And every time on arrival to Shamoni professor was not tired to remind of an award … on
Not less Saussure this fixed idea also Mark Burri who as the fates decree from - for quite tolerable ability to sing, became a chorister in the Geneva cathedral was keen. The person equally keen on writing of pictures and writing, had thirst for travel, and having heard about a cash bonus for conquest of Mont Blanc, began serious preparation for it “ to a campaign behind glory “.
As quarreled Horace and Mark?
Mark had one not really pleasant line - when he began to speak, was beyond the power to muffle it, probably, and to Victoria Falls. And, all people at a meeting with it would have to, according to Burri, from delight to bite the dust. Mark never suffering from modesty attacks became famous also for the fact that regularly sent the pictures to all monarchical yards of Europe, demanding in exchange the fabulous fees. However, any monarch of money did not pay.
Third participant “ dreams of Mont Blanc “ - Michel Pakkar - was a local, the native Shamoni, he was born in a family of the notary and “ ached with mountains “ since the childhood. In any case, being 18 - the summer young man he tried to storm top Mont Blanc, helping one Englishman. But alas and ah, they were forced to go down to the valley, without having covered also a half of the distance.
Soon after that Michel went to Turin to be learned on the physician, continued education in Paris, and, having come back home, with pleasure learned that the award of Saussure so is got by nobody. He began to prepare for ascension when learned that the Geneva academician got acquainted with Burri, and suggested it to keep the company.
Horace agreed with Mark`s arguments, they began to prepare ascension. First of all rich Saussure charged to three peasants to construct a stone hut at the height of 1450 meters that in it it was possible to spend the night and in more or less comfortable conditions to be prepared for a further stage of ascension.
So far this duet prepared for storm which was appointed to November 17, 1785, weather sharply worsened. In the Alps a lot of snow dropped out, but it did not stop climbers. Night as they also planned, passed in a hut, and here problems began further. In - the first, rate of ascension from - for deep snow, and, in - the second was sharply slowed down, this white cloth disguised various dangerous sites. And as Burri resisted, proving that 15 local guides who went with them, the sufficient basis to continue the movement, - Saussure decided to finish ascension ahead of schedule. They strong quarreled and did not talk with each other many years.
It is necessary to add, finishing the story about Burri that he lived quite long life, and traveled almost to the death which occurred on 81 - m to year of life.
Balma drove Pakkar forward!
the Rumour about unsuccessful ascension only urged on Michel Pakkar. Locals knew about his irrepressible desire to conquer peak, and once to it the young local hunter Jacques Balma glanced. He lived the fact that he helped to rise by other tops to rich climbers. Once, in the early spring of 1786, Jacques rose by one plateau and made out hardly perceptible “ easy way “ on top. But independently he did not begin to rise, and suggested Pakkar to keep it the company.
They went on reconnaissance. Reached this plateau without adventures. Safely stepped on “ easy way “. Surprisingly it and really first seemed easy. But the above traces from their footwear left, the it became worse and worse to subjugators of Mont Blanc.
The baron von Gersdorf who agreed to watch in a pipe the course of ascension and to write down its chronology in the magazine, noted that black points into which climbers turned creep upward, slowly and viscously as flies in dense sour cream.
Several times they in general were lost sight (failed in deep cracks), Michel begged Jacques to stop ascension. But that, more prepared, perfectly understood that it can be their last chance, and persistently crept uphill. Spent the night at top de la Kot, in a stone shelter which was constructed upon the demand of Saussure in a year before. In 4 mornings on August 8 they continued ascension … Got lost in cracks. Failed knee-deep during snow, and for this reason quickly lost forces. Rise was extremely difficult, Michel and Jacques not once wanted to turn. Nevertheless they had enough forces and obstinacy: On August 8 at 18:23 two persons ascended to top. On a twist of fate the first to top there ascended Pakkar. He almost went blind from the bright sparkling snow, was chilled to the core, but it set a flag at top and the diary entry about temperature, atmospheric pressure is made, notches of lower tops are drawn.
Descent concealed in itself many dangers too, it was necessary to go in the dark. But “ to the lucky Balma “ good luck smiled and this time - clouds dissipated, and the bright moon looked out.
Mont Blanc submitted one, and the monument was delivered to another...
A then historical injustice happened. While Pakkar described all delights of their ascension, joint with Jacques, the last jerked behind money to Geneva to Saussure. The man of science at first dropped a hint of doubt. But the burned Jacques`s face gave in it everything - the climber. Then Saussure offered it “ to repeat “ ascension, this time with it. And again to mountains went whole “ collective farm “ - accompanied them the whole 18 people. They conquered peak. And further a role was played by money and Saussure`s communications. He and Balma was recognized as pioneers, both from now on and for ever and ever on a main square of Shamoni of guests meets a monument to Saussure and Balma.
the Book of Pakkar about storm of Mont Blanc and remained almost unknown. But climbers traditionally celebrate the birthday on August 8.