How not to get the Nobel Prize? Philipp Lenard and Ivan Pulyuy of
the Russian commander A. V. Suvorov was known that he for all life did not lose any battle. Many spoke: it is lucky Suvorov. When he heard such talk, flew into a rage and shouted a cock voice: “ Time luck, two - luck, pardon God, also ability is necessary! “
At the end of 1895 professor of Vyurtsburgsky university Wilhelm Konrad Rentgen (Wilhelm Conrad R ö ntgen) (1845 - 1923) reported that beams unknown to science are opened for them before. In 1901 the first delivery the Nobel Prize on physics took place. This award was got for the opening by V. K. Rentgen.
On already elderly, fifty-year-old, professors the world glory and rather big money fell down. V. K. Rentgen took down this burden rather indifferently. However many physics treated success of the colleague very jealously. “ It was lucky Rentgen, ah as it was lucky! “ - They considered. - “ We could too... “
Well how not to remember here A. V. Suvorov`s saying about luck and ability?
Professor V. K. Rentgen was lucky on November 8, 1895. This day it opened the radiation, new, unknown till that time. Opened, investigating passing of electric current through the rarefied gas. It was very fashionable then scientific subject. Were engaged in it practically at each university. Everywhere there were glass tubes with two electrodes to which the high voltage was put. From tubes pumped out air, and at a certain depression between a negative electrode, the cathode, and positive, the anode, electric current began to proceed. The tube interior at the same time shone bluish light. Was considered that this luminescence - special, cathodic, beams. New, the fourth, condition of substance.
If to speak the modern language, cathodic beams are the electrons rushing from the cathode to the anode under the influence of electric field. A bluish luminescence in a tube - light, electromagnetic radiation which is emitted by the atoms of gas excited by collisions with electrons. Having reached a glass wall of a cathodic tube, electrons are sharply braked. As a result of such braking kinetic energy of electrons turns into energy of electromagnetic radiation. This electromagnetic radiation - two types. In - the first, light. All who studied cathodic beams, knew: where they fell on a tube wall, the greenish luminescence was observed.
But the cathodic tube radiated also other electromagnetic waves. This radiation had smaller wavelength, than light and therefore did not differ with a human eye. However under its influence special crystals - indicators shone. This luminescence was also noticed by V. K. Rentgen that day when good luck smiled to him. Leaving laboratory home, professor closed a tube a casing, impenetrable for cathodic beams, but forgot to disconnect a high voltage at the same time. The cathodic tube continued to work, the screen covered with crystals - indicators shone. And would should not!
Perhaps, V. K. Rentgen was not first of thousands of researchers who noticed this phenomenon. But he was the first who understood: the luminescence of the screen is caused not by cathodic, but some other beams. Rentgen called them “ x - beams “ also seized the opening by a bulldog`s grasp. It is less, than in two months, till December 28, 1895, it made so thorough experiments with a new radiation that other researchers within the next ten years did not manage to receive any new results in this area. So, it is necessary to recognize: in addition V. K. Rentgen received the world glory and the first Nobel Prize on physics is quite deserved. But to agree with this much oh as there was no wish.
The physicist from University of Bonn Philipp von Lenard (Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard) (1862 - 1947) was one of the chief critics of scientific achievements of V. K. Rentgen. Lenard is a lot of and fruitfully worked, investigating cathodic beams. Nobody doubted that in this perspective area he will make great progress. He was confident in it too. Lenard`s disappointment that great opening took place by turned out that stronger. And that was the annoying: he received tubes with which Rentgen experimented from Philipp Lenard.
V. K. Rentgen, as ill luck would have it, in one of three works written to them devoted to research of new radiation even did not mention the word that he worked with Lenard`s tubes! Even did not share a reflection of glory! It is not sophisticated that Lenard began to challenge rather loudly Rentgen`s merits as experimenter. Yes, he spoke, Rentgen opened new radiation. But opened - that it it, working with cathodic tubes of Lenard. So “ x-ray “ it would be necessary to call beams on justice “ lenardovsky “. Well and to divide the Nobel Prize on justice.
And though Philipp Lenard too got the Nobel Prize in 1905 (just for research of cathodic beams), hostility to “ deceived “ to his Rentgen at it remained. In due time, having become “ chief physicist “ nazi Germany, he not only fought with “ Jewish physics “ and tried and “ Rentgen`s beams “ to rename in “ Lenard`s beams “.
But in that is continually that X-rays were radiated by any cathodic tube, whether lenardovsky, not lenardovsky! By the way, the fact that literally at once after the publication on December 28, 1895 V. K results is explained by universal distribution of cathodic tubes. Rentgen were repeated in many countries of the world. Even over the ocean, in the USA. Cathodic beams investigated thousands of scientists. And any of thousands in principle could open new radiation.
Very close other scientist, the outstanding physicist and the electrician Ivan Pavlovich Pulyuy approached this opening (1845 - 1918) . He was born in the territory of present Ukraine, in Ternopolshchina. Then it was Avstro - Hungary.
Parents wanted to see the son the priest. Yes he also, apparently, at first wished it. In 1865, having finished the Ternopil gymnasium, I. Pulyuy on foot went from native places to Vienna to arrive on theological faculty of university. The feat is similar Lomonosov. However, having become the diplomaed theologian, Ivan Pulyuy became interested in natural sciences, passed to philosophical faculty and in 1872 finished physics - mathematical office.
Pavel Pulyuy was a strict father. He damned Ivan for the fact that the son rejected religious career and until the end of the life did not communicate with it any more.
God and science peacefully got on in I. Pulyuya`s consciousness. All life, being engaged in one of most “ natural “ sciences, he remained, in - the first, a person religious, and in - the second, kept commitment to belief of fathers (the family Pulyuev belonged to uniatsky, Greco - Catholic, to religion).
Ivan Pulyuya`s life, it is possible to consider, it was successful. He was an initiator of construction of the first in Avstro - Hungary power plants. At the Prague Higher technical school created and nearly a third of the century headed department of physics and electrical equipment, the first department of electrical equipment in Europe. But nevertheless as the main business of the life of I. Pulyuy considered joint with I. Not Chui - Levitsky and P. Kulish the translation of the Bible into Ukrainian. It is possible therefore the fact that the international recognition avoided it, it transferred easier, than Lenard. And it was even not in a step from opening, and literally rested against it a forehead.
Ivan Pulyuy, investigated the radiation of cathodic tubes, trying to turn them into light sources. Modern gazosvetny (“ neon “) lamps is what he aspired to. During the experiments he found out that “ light “ proceeding from a cathodic tube, lights photographic plates, and even made the first “ x-ray “ pictures. But inertia of thinking - terrible piece! Pulyuy did not understand that him “ lamp “ except visible beams, radiates also invisible.
The inspiration came to it only at the beginning of 1896 when he read the first article B. K. Rentgena. But, as it was already told, Rentgen walked across the scientific territory opened for them as if the bulldozer, having made all possible discoveries in this area for ten years ahead. It is possible to present how it was bitter at heart at Pulyuya when he understood what Heat - a bird missed.
But nevertheless I. Pulyuy never spoke in that spirit that here it opened x-ray radiation before Rentgen, but it appeared “ it is jammed “ ill-wishers or even that Rentgen borrowed the opening from letters of the Prague colleague. As some Ukrainian historians of science try to make it now.