How to get the Nobel Prize? Wilhelm Conrad the X-ray of
at the end of 1940 - x years in the USSR began to fight against servility before the West, to prove that all on light the first was invented by Russians. Right there the joke which essence was reduced to the fact that X-rays were opened still by Ivan the Terrible went for a walk. He wrote Andrey Kurbsky: “ I you, the sukiny son, see through! “
To a joke to it therefore laughed that all knew: not Ivan Vasilyevich Grozny, and Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen opened pervasive beams (Wilhelm Conrad R ö ntgen) (1845 - 1923) . This fact was claimed in public opinion and the fact that for the opening the German scientist got the Nobel Prize in 1901. The very first Nobel Prize on physics.
About the X-ray all knew, even kids. We learned about its opening in kindergarten when all of us were amicably conducted on fluorography. At first a little terribly: you stand in the dark room without shirt, you shiver. Suddenly something hoots, and after the doctor orders to put on. Any pricks, it is not sick at all! How here not to fall in love with this X-ray! And the man who thought up him, too.
V. K. Rentgen in Westphalia was born. Here Rhine imperceptibly crosses border, flowing away from the German lands in Dutch, to the North Sea. Here fancifully the Dutch and German languages mixed up, and at many Westphalian Germans of a surname came to an end on - Dutch, on “ en “. For example, “ Beethoven “. Who is who, these regions not especially understood. Wilhelm`s mother was from Amsterdam. And when the boy was three years old, the family without problems moved in next, but already Dutch, the town of Apeldorn. Here Wilhelm studied at elementary school belonging - fans of B. Akunin, attention! - To Martinus van Dorn.
In twenty years V. K. The X-ray went to Switzerland and entered the Zurich polytechnical institute. This very known educational institution was finished by the whole group of the famous scientists, future Nobel laureates. For example, Albert Einstein studied here. Having gained the diploma of the mechanical engineer in Zurich, V. K. Rentgen understood that it is attracted by not engineering activity, and “ pure “ physics. He becomes the assistant to the teacher, professor Kundt, and after it moves in 1873 to university of Strasbourg.
It is much more boring for the biography of scientists than biographies of military or travelers. V. K. Rentgen`s biography after he became a physicist, finds room in one paragraph. From 1874 to 1900 he is professor of physics at various universities of Germany: in Strasbourg, in Gissen, in the Wurzburg. Studied properties of crystals and the rarefied gases. Made the discovery which glorified it already at fifty-year age, being professor of Vyurtsburgsky university. At last, since 1900 and until the end of the life V. K. Rentgen - professor of physics of the Munich university. In 1914 he wanted to emigrate to the USA as he received the invitation to become professor of Columbia University in New - York. Even tickets for the steamship were bought, but World War I burst, and plans of professor Rentgen changed.
Neither great to you fights, nor the sea adventures any of El Dorado on the horizon! All life to study some crystals some the rarefied gases there! Boredom! Unless secrets of the nature are so revealed?
It is necessary to tell sceptics and whiners: yes, quite so! Moreover, great discoveries are, as a rule, made incidentally. Without burying in depth of times, I will give an example from own life.
About thirty five years ago one my companion still the student passed externship in solid metallovedchesky office. The student - gratuitous labor. On my friend “ hung “ very necessary work which was generously financed by military department. This work was rather simple. On already ready installation it was necessary to perform several thousands of measurements for samples of various alloys, to tabulate measurements, to construct curves. Laboratories - the report, to the friend - the thesis. One shot killed at least two hares.
If my friend was an accurate girl, most likely, these two hares would be killed and skinned in time. But my companion was oho - go what boy and consequently, the careless sloven. Besides, and the experimenter it appeared very mediocre as his soul lay more to physics theoretical. He considered himself as the successor Landau - not differently! - also soared somewhere there, in transcendental theoretical empireyakh. So tables and schedules I helped it to do. It is necessary to tell that in the absence of computers it was the wildest work even for the accurate girl who I was not too.
And here just the woman managed laboratory. Nice, but caustic. Having seen what “ Einstein “ it should be directed, she with own hand performed ten control measurements and in fifty percent of cases found out obvious discrepancy with what was namerit by my friend. It was scandal, and thesis defense for “ great theorist “ became problematic. Though he also swore - swore that did not forge results of measurements, the belief to him was not any more.
Usually kind wizards live in fairy tales, and in life all troubles should be disentangled most. But in this case did not do without kind wizard. One of the staff of laboratory believed tears and snivels of my friend and made the investigation of the taken place events. It became clear that my friend repeatedly ran away from laboratory, without having switched off the measuring stand and even without having removed from it samples so those long enough were affected by a high voltage. Under the influence of electric field in some samples there was a phase transition. Discovery! Neither it is more, nor it is less. My friend reconciled with the head of the laboratory, safely defended the thesis, and soon and the master`s thesis. Became the scientist, famous in the area. How value of accident in scientific work is big, it never challenges.
Fatal accident happened also to professor of physics of Vyurtsburgsky university B. K. Rentgen. In 1895 he studied passing of electric current in the rarefied gas. On November 8, being already going to leave home, mister professor closed a tube a cover from black paper, without having cut off power installation though always arrived on the contrary. Rentgen incidentally violated the rule, to them established. And here he noticed: though the tube was already covered, the fluorescent screen which is nearby shines as before. The luminescence stopped, only when Rentgen disconnected the high voltage moving on a tube. The scientist thought that the included tube radiates some unknown, beams invisible to an eye (he called them “ x - beams “) also arranged on these beams uniform “ round-up “.
Till Christmas of 1895 it almost did not leave laboratory. Fell down and ate, without departing from devices. Investigated all properties of new radiation and found, among other things, that for x - beams many materials were transparent (or almost transparent). Rentgen published article about a new type of beams on December 28, 1895, and at the beginning of the next year the general public learned about it. And not only scientific.
In Russian “ X-ray “ call also fluorography, research of a condition of internals by means of x-ray radiation. That “ x - beams “ easily penetrated body tissues, but were late bones, V. K. Rentgen found in the first experiences. And at once understood importance of it for medical diagnostics. Not without reason the first article about properties x - beams Rentgen sent to Fiziko - medical society of Vyurtsburgsky university.
The first x-ray picture was made from a hand of the wife of the scientist, Anna Berta. And it is less than in a month after the publication, in January, 1896, experts (in the state New - Hampshire, the USA) made a x-ray picture of a fracture of hand of Dartmouth College. Ran for search of the place of a change to the touch earlier that brought to the patient considerable pain. The bullets and splinters which wounded soldiers in the battlefield looked for blindly, a special probe too. Present yourself on the place wounded to which in a wound put such probe! So x-ray shooting began to be applied also in military hospitals soon, and in usual hospitals. And about existence “ X-rays “ all learned.
Introduction of this term to Russian was promoted in many respects by the pupil V. K. Rentgena, Abram Fedorovich Yoffe . As a matter of fact, it would be more correct to call these beams “ x-ray “. But for some reason Russian does not love the letter “ yo “ and always strives to correct it on “ e “.
Rentgen always called the radiation opened for them only “ x - beams “. He in general was very modest person. And painfully honest. Therefore the rumors dismissed by some physics that Rentgen made the discovery, having used foreign results, literally wounded him.
On a delivery ceremony to it the Nobel Prize, Rentgen did not arrive, having referred to employment. However, then the Nobel Prize had no such high status yet as now. And mister professor of the Munich university quite could ignore the ceremony organized in his honor in far Stockholm.
The Swedish academy of Sciences sent the winner an award by mail. It was even more difficult to accuse of Rentgen`s self-interest, than of dishonesty. It gave a gratuity to Vyurtsburgsky university where made the discovery. And in the years of World War I almost all the savings of V. K. Rentgen gave to fund of support of the German army.