Why the patriarch Nikon created the monastery on Belomorsk the Cue - the island?
the Patriarch Nikon - the personality in the Russian history widely known. Connect with his name also the church reform which significantly changed liturgical tradition of the Russian Orthodoxy, and the church split which led to appearance of Old Believers and substantial increase of a role of church primates in public affairs and emergence in Russia of new large monasteries.
Having received the patriarch`s dignity, Nikon soon achieved also a title of the Great Sovereign, having got up practically level with the tsar. By the way, the full title of Nikon sounded so: “ To Bozhiyey favor great mister and sovereign, archbishop tsarstvuyushchago hail of Moscow and vse velikiya both malyya and belyya Russia and vse severnyya countries and pomoria and many states patriarch “. Pomorze and the northern countries are not for nothing mentioned in a title; to them the patriarch had a special relation, there passed the considerable part of his life and ascension to tops of the church power began.
About activity of the patriarch Nikon in “ Shkolezhizni. ru “ repeatedly wrote. Therefore I will tell only about the events in his life which led finally to creation of one of the largest and richest northern monasteries - the Kiysky God monastery.
Nikon, in a sacred baptism Nikita, was born allegedly in 1605 in a country family near Nizhny Novgorod. In 12 years it had to leave the house and to become the novice of the Zheltovodsky monastery in whom it stayed till 1624. Having returned from the monastery, Nikita married and was built in a curacy. After death of children and going into convent of the spouse in the nun, under the name of Nikon accepted tonsured in Solovetsky Monastery. From now on future patriarch closely connected the life with Belomoryem.
In one of the Solovki monasteries Nikon became the pupil of the aged man Eleazar who was famous for sanctity and being familiar with an imperial family. With it Nikon went to Moscow for fund raising on construction of the stone temple. Perhaps, then there was also its first acquaintance to future tsar Alexey Mikhaylovich. In 1639, considering that the aged man consciously tightens construction of the temple, Nikon quarreled with Eleazar and ran from the Solovki, having persuaded one of pilgrims to bring him on the Pomor karbas to the mouth of Onega.
Sea transition nearly ended with the tragedy. Here is how Nikon wrote about it subsequently: “ In mimoshedshy 1639 summer we, budushche the Celibate priest, tvorikhy procession along the sea from Anzerskago`s monastery and in time that great sea nervousness nearly potopikhomsya; but, upovayushche on Bozhestvennago Zhivotvoryashchago Krest`s strength, rescue by a semi-sneeze before the Onega mouth, to a haven to Kia to the island, and glory vozdakhy Raspenshemusya on Kresta Gospodu to our Jesus Christ about this disposal. Budushche then on that island, on reminiscence of that rescue vodruzikhy on that place Svyaty and Life-giving Krest “.
After wonderful rescue Nikon went to the Kozheozersky monastery where soon became the prior. In 1646, being on monastic affairs in Moscow, it was accepted 17 - the summer tsar Alexey perceiving Nikon as the pupil and the follower aged man Eleazar. Probably, the aged man forgave to Nikon escape and, having a great influence on Romanov (according to the legend, exactly thanks to his prayers the son Alexey was born at the tsar Mikhail), did not interfere with his rapprochement with the young monarch. By the way, the aged man predicted to Nikon future patriarchate.
Native wit, strong character, erudition and Nikon`s religiousness made big impression on the tsar. The abbot Nikon was made in a dignity of the archimandrite and appointed the prior of Novospassky Monastery in Moscow. And it is soon built in a metropolitanate Novgorod and Velikolutsky.
In 1652 Nikon appeared on Kiy Island again, and again it was necessary to stick to the island from - for a storm. It is considered that in this visit of the island, having seen whole the cross which is earlier established to them, Nikon also accepted a vow to create the monastery on the island. In four years, having already become the patriarch, he got from the tsar permission to the Cue - the island “ to put church and to sogradit the monastery, imyanuyemy Stavros “ (Stavros - a cross on - it is Greek).
The sums enormous for those times (only the tsar offered 6 thousand rubles) were allocated for construction, to the God monastery attributed several operating northern monasteries and considerable territories with 4537 peasants (considered only adult men) therefore construction in which course the patriarch constantly was interested was conducted in high gear.
The patriarch Nikon had on the Kiysky God monastery special types. In the heat there was a church reform which led to split and is not accepted by the monks of Solovetsky Monastery who got up in open opposition. Influence of the Solovki monastery was big in the north, - that and the patriarch sought to oppose it spiritual power of the new large monastery, having brought together in it the esteemed aged men and Christian shrines. The first monks were transferred to the Kiysky monastery from the Syryinsky desert from which aged man, Pakhomy, headed construction.
To lift value of the Kiysky monastery, his priors at once began to appoint archimandrites. Ioann, especially for it hailed in 1656 was the first. By the way, this tradition was carried on till 1884 when the dignity of the archimandrite was received by Yuvenaly transferred to the Cue from abbots of the Krasnogorsk monastery.
Sent to the Cue not only monks, peasants and builders, in 1657 sent group to the island the dragoon and gunners with guns which in several years were used for suppression of revolt of dissenters on the Solovki.
But the main thing, the monastery received a shrine, similar which was not had by any monastery in Russia. Messengers of the patriarch organized production in Palestine of a big cypress cross, the sizes with on what Christ, and acquisition of shrines - parts of a tree Kresta Gospodnya and Lord`s Copes, sacred relics from the places connected with life and Christ`s death, the Mother of God, John the Forerunner accepted martyrdom. In total on a cross placed more than three hundred particles of Christian shrines, including relics of Bozhiy Saints.
From Palestine Krest was originally brought to Moscow, he was finally issued, decorated with gold and jewelry. Some time it was exposed at Red Square where pilgrims could not only pray before it, but also touch sacred relics. It is natural that the rumor about emergence in Russia of such shrine was spread quickly. Now reverentially to touch a stone of the Lord`s Coffin or a piece of the tree irrigated with blood of the crucified Christ it was not obligatory to go to Palestine. When Krest solemnly sent to the Cue - the island, pilgrims at once reached for it.
Now the Kiysky cross is in the Moscow Church of St. Sergius of Radonezh in Wrens where he was given August, 1991. After closing in 1922 of the monastery it some time remained in the temple, then was stored in the antireligious museum on the Solovki from where it was sent to Moscow in the Historical museum. Till 1923 Krest only once left the monastery. Before disembarkation of British to the island it was managed to be taken away on the continent, but already then it lost part of sacred relics, still some part of relics, a gilded salary and jewelry were lost in the Soviet years.
the patriarch Nikon came Last time on the Cue - the island in 1660 and lived in the monastery nearly a year, personally directing construction and having consecrated Krestovozdvizhensky Cathedral and several churches during this period.
After death of the patriarch Nikon Kiysky the monastery did not lose the value, and for a long time remained especially esteemed, competing with the well-known Solovetsky Monastery. Fading of the monastery began since the time of Peter I and, especially, Catherine II when monastery lands began to be withdrawn actively. Before revolution on Kiy Island where there was no opportunity to be engaged in economic activity, except fishery, there were only several monks under the leadership of the abbot, also the flow of pilgrims considerably became scanty.
After closing of the monastery in its rooms the boarding school for children, and with 30 - x - rest house was placed years. During this period stone constructions where the internal furniture was almost completely destroyed most suffered, floors, doors, window frames, etc. decayed or burned down. Restoration in a monastic complex began only in 1968. It was succeeded to stop destruction and to partially restore appearance of stone structures. Since the beginning 90 - x years of the last century restoration is almost suspended, only some low budget works are continued.
Now services in again consecrated Krestovozdvizhensky Cathedral where the new wooden Krest made on an image brought from Palestine is established, but on it only one small shrine with the relics are renewed now.
Time and people did not spare the Kiysky God monastery built on one of the most beautiful islands of the White Sea. There is a wish to believe that in the 21st century the northern shrine will revive, and over Belomory the ring of its bells will float again.