Pyramid of requirements: who is it “ builder “?
on psychology and management are often mentioned In literature a pyramid of requirements which creation is attributed to the American psychologist Abraham Maslou. But he did not create this pyramid, he studied biographies of the great people who achieved creative self-realization and found interesting regularities which allowed it to formulate the hierarchical theory of needs of the person in their biographies. Here on the basis of this hierarchical theory Maslou`s followers also thought up a pyramid (for the facilitated perception of his ideas).
What is represented by Maslou`s pyramid? This conditional pyramid physiological requirements , characteristic of any living being are the cornerstone of . Their satisfaction is necessary for the person first of all as his survival depends on them. Here needs for breath, food, a dream and sex belong. Without their satisfaction the person will not begin to aspire to higher purposes: “ the empty stomach to the doctrine is deaf “ - popular wisdom says.
That is while the person hungers, he will not be interested in theatrical prime ministers or fashionable magazines, he will better spend time for finding to itself(himself) livelihood. These requirements force the person to work and on the earned money to acquire to itself food, clothes, household items. And, of course, real estate (otherwise there will be no place to sleep).
At the second step of a pyramid settled down of need for safety and stability . Here not only requirements to secure own life and life of the relatives, but also requirement not to lose work or the dwelling, not to catch some illness, not to lose the property belong. These requirements force the person to put locks on a door, to save up money on bank accounts, to get an insurance etc.
These first two steps are characteristic not only of the person, but also of animals. Of course, they do not acquire to themselves food in shops and do not save up money. At animals these requirements are realized in a different way: not to starve, they do supplies of food for the winter; the made supplies carefully mask (and door locks do not become necessary to them); the dwellings build in safe places (someone underground, someone on trees, someone in a dense thicket - that predators could not find and ruin them). However if at animals of requirement on it come to an end (as more nothing is necessary for a biological survival), then at the person they only begin.
At the third step the social requirements which are expressed in desire of the person to be involved in any group of people, to have friends settled down and to communicate with them, and also to love and be darling. The social environment (a family, the company of friends, fellow workers) allows the person to get rid of feeling of loneliness and to find feeling of safety (“ together we - force “) and own importance (“ I - one of them “) . For this reason people seek to establish good relations with other people and these requirements force the person to look for the partner for creation of a family, the partner for business, the companion for game in billiards or the adherent for discussion of the latest news.
When needs of the person for participation in any group and communication with people are satisfied, their influence on behavior of the person decreases, and to the forefront there are other requirements (which are conditionally located at the fourth step of a pyramid) - of need for respect from colleagues and friends (communication, and respect is required not just any more, - we will tell, the person with such requirements can demand from others that to it handled by name - to a middle name or a prefix mister / madam), in prestige (desire to take some foreground in group of people, for example, to be the chief), in recognition from people around (that is, the person wants that the fact that it does, would admit and was assessed positively). These requirements force the person to try to obtain professional skill, to earn to themselves good reputation, to support the high social status and to take care of the image.
And the last, the fifth, a step of a pyramid of Maslou - spiritual needs , or needs for self-realization (that is the desire is fuller to open the opportunities and talents). These requirements force the person to travel, read books, to visit the museums and exhibitions, to be engaged in creativity and in every possible way to develop the abilities. Besides, they force the person to learn world around, to look for meaning of life, to defend and extend the views, to fight for justice and to try to obtain independence.
This pyramid demonstrates as the person satisfies the requirements and what requirements he seeks to satisfy first of all. Not for nothing it is so loved by managers and advertisers: knowing that the person wants, they skillfully build the strategy. The knowledge is force; in this case - force allowing to show so the goods that the person by all means will want to get it. The person thinks that he buys bread, and actually it just satisfies part of the physiological requirements. The person thinks that he buys the automobile alarm system, and actually he satisfies the need for safety. The person thinks that he buys a game club in hockey, and actually it satisfies the social requirements.
Of course, there are such requirements which any person seeks to satisfy first of all (for example, in food or breath), and is such which he can postpone for some time or at all refuse them (for example, the person can not think of the image or reputation if he has no place to live or there is nothing to eat). At satisfaction of lower (located closer to the pyramid basis) needs of people as on a ladder, moves to requirements of higher level.
But it does not mean that requirements, for example, for self-realization, arise only after all others are satisfied. People are different: someone will reconcile to lack of own dwelling, but with pleasure will write verses, and someone will spit creation of a family, but will try to obtain by all means career development to become the big chief. However in general most of people passes pyramid steps on increasing - from lower steps to higher. From requirements of a stomach - to requirements of soul.
Here, actually, this hierarchy of requirements built in the form of a pyramid also glorified Abraham Maslou.