From where “ dances “ Russian furnace? History of the dwelling
according to ethnographers, at the nomadic people the housing did not differ in a variety of the forms and ways of the embodiment of ideas. Present plagues of the Sami, a yaranga of the Eskimo or the Kyrgyz yurta - dwellings of northern nomads in everything remind constructions of the southern brothers. Here really the adherents united by one passion to change of places! When there is a purpose - the road, of comfort there is no time to think.
Most likely, dwellings of people “ roll the field “ go back to the tents invented in an extreme antiquity by the people of the Middle East. The vehicle of the ancient German or colonialist of the Distant West Main - ridovsky times became a prototype of trailer camps or cars popular today with an inhabited compartment, known as “ Caravan “ (autohouse, autodacha, kemper).
How our ancestors who decided to become staid and settle built housing? The grain-grower estimated small heat conductivity of the friable soft soil: by an example of animal holes there was a dwelling consisting of the hole which is dug out in the earth with a narrow entrance. From above such holes people put trunks of trees, logs, poles, boughs, the turf and the earth. But it was not really pleasant to live in such earth hole during rains - the soil became crude and cold. Then on boards of earth strengthening began to establish walls “ in a felling “ from logs, stopping up cracks between logs a moss, the earth, coating with clay. In the north grooves were caulked a reindeer lichen which possesses property to kill bacteria. Cover was served by a roof with the prisypny earth or with the turf. So there was a dugout which was the standard winter dwelling both at Germans, and at Slavs already two thousand years ago.
Where near at hand there was nothing, except snow and ice, local builders estimated small heat conductivity of snow. Peoples of the North constructed peculiar " too; dugouts “ huts from ice and snow. Escaping from death on a frost, people hid in these shelters the whole families and carried out the most part of winter there, warming them with the breath and lighting with lamps with seal fat (the Eskimo name - a needle).
of Kurnaya a log hut differs in nothing from “ are stupid “ Karelians
the Log hut without windows or with very small window - dragging, with benches along walls was a haven of all of years one thousand ago terribly tell - to kings, more precisely - to konungs. “ Winter Palace “ the Norwegian konungs, in fact, differed in nothing from the kurny log hut or a bath burning on - black. For lighting and release of a smoke from the center which is spread out on an earth floor, became a furnace prototype the hatch served in a roof.
The windowpane appeared in Europe in the 10th century, in the earliest windows there were small openings with the frame going horizontally, they were called “ volokam “ from the verb “ to drag “. Much later, already in the Middle Ages, in the countries of Scandinavia glass windows became expensive pleasure for which it was necessary to pay also taxes as the Swedish king imposed a tax on glass windows.
In country estates of Finland still still it is possible to meet log houses, very reminding stylized Russians “ huts on chicken legs “. Such lodges were under construction in Karelia and in Russia. Scientists assume that cult constructions of the Finn - ugr which buried the dead in the small lodges arranged on high stubs could be a prototype of the dwelling of the folklore character of a baba-yaga. Apparently, this custom was the general for the Ural and Siberian tribes. Orochona, primordial inhabitants of Transbaikalia, buried tribespeople on trees until the Russian settlers forbade similar ritual. Wild animals were attracted by a putrid smell, animals divorced very much that they attacked also the living Cossacks who are in a taiga, and wolves lifted up dogs in villages. whether
Remained an ancient log hut presently?
Yes, she survived in the form of wooden baths which there is a lot of in Russia, and forest izbas (“ zaimok “) . The such zaimka is more senior, the more deeply it goes to the earth. Linguists noticed similarity in etymology of the Russian word “ log hut “ and Finnish “ it is stupid “.
In Russian a word " synonym; log hut “ the word " is; istopka “ which designates the heated structure. In German the word “ to a shtuba “ means “ the heated room “ in turn come from Latin - “ estofa “ - “ " furnace;. Finnish word “ it is stupid “ most likely, it is related to the Russian verb “ to heat “ also designates the same, as in the Russian and German languages - “ the heated room “ “ log hut “.
The typical dark log hut remained in the central Finland. According to the historian of the Karelian edge Maynov, “ owing to a winter icy cold decided korelyak to live in winter nearly a mole. As soon as the first frost good took silent lamb (reaches), so korelyak and for work. Will earn boards the windows to the most top glasses, if only slightly - at daybreak took place yes not really in a log hut it was dark in the afternoon, and sits all winter in semidarkness - the benefit, to it to spin not laces, not to remove drawings figured “. The typical dark log hut remained in the central Finland. whether
are Begun again from the beginning by Finns?
Behind small windows - the pitch gloom of winter night, and in a log hut - burns the furnace. It - the center of everything, the Russian expression “ to begin again from the beginning “ has the same value and for Finns. The most part of the room it occupies, the furnace. A massive oven column and regiments departing from it at right angle to each other - main “ constructions “ in Finnish being in a stupor. On shelves of a tuyes, a box, pletenka for spoons, saltcellars, just weaved bast shoes stood in the row birch bark.
Modern inhabitants of the Finnish houses in which there is an ancient furnace are able to look after it. The profession of the stove-setter who is going round the farm - earlier on a horse, and now on the car - is demanded to this day. Wood furnaces differ on design, it becomes more modern, but the principle of a kindling of the furnace firewood remains same, as in antiquated times. Owners seek to keep traditional character, especially if it is about the most important - about a source of heat, a cosiness and hot food.
Old men tell youth that there are furnaces correct and wrong. If the fire chamber is too deep, then fire heats a plate insufficiently. It is necessary just to lift a furnace bottom lattice. And here if it is too low, there some threshold is too low, the plate does not heat up. It is necessary and to lift the wind furnace in this case. Cracks in a plate disturb draft. The furnace runs cold! It is necessary to miss the mark all cracks with clay. Old men learn as it is necessary to remove ashes. If a lot of ashes accumulated, then this plate, both an oven, and a copper badly gets warm if it is. To bake it is necessary to clean regularly. Day to begin with survey of an oven. About draft it is necessary to know. Too strong draft promotes fast combustion of firewood or coal, and the plate does not manage to heat up, the lunch does not prepare! Draft is correct if the flame of the candle brought to a fire chamber deviates at right angle, but does not die away.
(As illustrations the author`s photo, the museum of Central Finland were used.)