At birthday of Mikhail Zoshchenko. What did the writer do not please the Soviet power with?
To L. I. Borisov`s honor (the few remember a name of this prose writer now) should be told that he found in himself courage to say: “ At a coffin do not lie. At all people, in all countries and at all times at believers and at non-believers the custom was and remained - to apologize to a coffin late. We know that M. M. Zoshchenko was a person generous. Therefore, I think, he will forgive much of us our sins before him free and involuntary, and them, these sins, much " accumulated;.
Unfortunately, the previous speaker after these words started skirmish, and in closeness of the room, rather small for the audience, vanity of the swept-up organizers of a funeral and the indignant shouts of the women standing at a coffin made horrible impression. Memorial service was stopped, despite requirements of the widow to read the arrived telegrams of a condolence. V. Ardov called later the incident shame.
But already at carrying out of wreaths the elderly person with the sincere and penetrating address approached a body of the dead: “ Dear Mikhail Mikhaylovich, since young years you were my favourite writer. You not only made laugh, you taught us to live... Accept my low bow and the hottest, hearty thanks. I think that I tell it not only from myself, but also on behalf of one million your readers “.
Memorial service at a grave the person, before it opened all road cheerfully joking with young women. And at the same time told about gay character of Zoshchenko and how he loved women. When all speeches were delivered, all dispersed, and the filled-up hole and the next year was left not only without gravestone, but even without plate with a name of the great writer though in the last visit to SPP it was promised to it to take care of a grave: to put a fencing and a monument.
But in what the reason of the long-term persecution which is so clearly shown in day of a funeral of Mikhail Zoshchenko? Despite the glory accompanying his creativity from twentieth years, the criticism which was more and more amplifying over the years was a constant companion of literary work. In June, 1927 the issue of the magazine " was confiscated; Hippopotamus “ because of the publication in it “ politically harmful “ M. Zoshchenko`s story “ Bad story “ and in three years in Leningrad there was no satirical magazine any more (it is remarkable that the last of the closed editions had the name “ Auditor “) .
Work which he considered as the main thing in the life - “ Before sunrise “ - it was publicly called A. A. Zhdanov, the party boss of Leningrad, a disgusting thing. Discussion, more precisely, an obruganiye it was carried out on enlarged meeting of the Writers` Union by A. Fadeyev, L. Kirpotin, S. Marshak, L. Sobolev, V. Shklovsky`s lips and others. And still there were those who defended: D. Shostakovich, M. Slonimsky, A. Mariyengof, A. Raikin, A. Vertinsky, B. Babochkin, V. Gorbatov, A. Kruchenykh. But as a result of it nevertheless expel from structure of an editorial board of the " magazine; Crocodile “ deprive of a grocery ration and move from " hotel; Moscow “.
I. V. Stalin did not forgive to the writer published in the children`s magazine “ Murzilka “ story “ Adventures of the monkey “ because in this character, on the one hand, saw a hint on himself, with another - jarred on reasonings of the heroine of the narration that among people it is unpleasant to be and better in a cage, but separately.
There is no need to list all pricks and meanness which M. Zoshchenko happened to test. At last, in 1946 - m, after the resolution of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks) of the Central Committee of August 14, 1946 “ About " magazines; Star “ and “ Leningrad “ “ together with Anna Akhmatova it was expelled from the Writers` Union and deprived of a grocery card. Several years was engaged only in the translations, is more often - without mention of it in the published books. After death “ father of the people “ it was again accepted in literary association, but not restored, namely accepted, i.e. the decision on an exception at the same time was not cancelled.
The repaired obstacles and deprivations affected M. Zoshchenko`s health, but did not break his spirit. Speaking at a meeting with the group of the English students which took place at the initiative of the last he reported that he does not agree with the brought charges. And persecution continued with a new force.
And what it was only not abused besides literature for! That was accused of service in imperial army where it went the volunteer - to protect the Homeland and, having begun service the ensign, in a year finished it shtabs - the captain and the gentleman of four war decorations. At the same time it was held back that it went to Red Army voluntarily too and got demobilize for health reasons as three wounds and poisoning with gases were reflected in work of heart.
Zoshchenko and from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War asked on the front, but did not pass medical board. Charged it even with the fact that it was evacuated from besieged Leningrad: the ideological car created public opinion about infamy of a similar act to cover own failure of evacuation of the population as a result of which so many people died.
… Once very long time ago young Mikhail Zoshchenko, the noble son whose father was an artist - the Itinerant and mother - the actress, received unit at final examination in a gymnasium in the Russian composition. He who began to write at nine-year age! It whose talent was recognized unique by M. Gorky, K. Chukovsky and other coryphaeuses of domestic literature. It who was the author of the first work from the Soviet Russia published abroad and got then in “ black list “ in Hitlerite Germany, and its books appeared in street fires. Really this ill-fated stake pursued talent all life?!
Or it is a payment for tortuosity of a path on which it went to literary shop, without shunning on the way any work? Without having managed to pay training at faculty of law, Zoshchenko it was deducted from the St. Petersburg university after the first course. And whom was only not: control on the Caucasian railroad, the rabbit breeding instructor, a kontorshchik, the employee of criminal investigation department, a bashmachnik and the tailor. But the muse nevertheless led the writer to calling to which he he was faithful until the end of life, despite of all barriers and persecutions.
Someone from contemporaries called Mikhail Zoshchenko the most unread and most misunderstood great Russian writer. Osip Mandelstam spoke of an essence of his talent the following words: “ Zoshchenko, the moralist by the nature, the stories tried to bring to reason contemporaries, to help them to become people, and readers took everything for a yumoristika and neighed as horses. Zoshchenko kept illusions, was absolutely deprived of cynicism, all the time reflected, having slightly inclined the head on one side, and cruelly paid for it. The artist`s eye he sometimes got into an essence of things, but could not comprehend them because he sacredly believed in progress and all its beautiful consequences … The pure and beautiful person, he looked for communications with an era, trusted the broadcasting programs promising general happiness considered that sometime everything will enter norm as manifestation of cruelty and wildness only accident, ripples on " water;.
Also we will hope that these ripples will come to naught, and we will honor memory of Mikhail Zoshchenko who has a birthday today.