For what burned John Hus?
are known Of early years of life of this person very little. It is for certain known that descended from a peasant family, but year of birth is calculated by date of receipt in the Prague (Karlov) university and is defined in an interval between 1369 and 1371.
The father was allegedly called Mikhail, history to us did not keep a name of mother, is mentioned only that she was very devout woman. John Hus`s homeland call the settlement of Gusinets, but as those there were two - near Prague and near Prakhatitse, they still challenge the rights of each other.
Having gone to the capital to study, Jan earned to himself money for life a prisluzhivaniye in temples and singing in church choir. He remembered that time so: “ When I was a hungry little boy, I did of spoon bread with which ate peas until at last did not eat also a spoon “.
Having finished the lowest steps of training, arrived on faculty of free arts, in 1393 ended it, having an average rating of abilities in the opinion of professorate, having received the bachelor`s degree, in a year acquired the status of the bachelor of divinity, and in 1396 became the master of free arts.
In two years John Hus began to teach divinity at native university, then became the dean and at last - the rector (1402 - 1403, 1209 - 1410). At the same time preached in Bethlehem church. Having got acquainted with John Wycliffe`s works which in the Czech Republic were forbidden, openly supported his views: condemned depravity of customs of representatives of clergy, as a source of belief recognized only the Scripture which authority put above papal.
The ardent speaker expressed the thoughts intelligibly and emotionally: “ Take care, the predators peeling poor people, the murderers, villains who are not recognizing anything sacred! “; “ Not “ bread my essential “ and “ bread our essential “ it is told in the Scripture, so unfairly that one lived much, and others suffered from hunger “.
The thinker supported the views with national idea, protesting against the German domination in the country and found as the ally king Wenceslaus IV who issued the decree under which the management of the Prague university passed to the Czech scientists in 1409.
Gradually Ya. Hus`s position in Prague strongly worsened, reached that it was opposed by the Prague archbishop, and then and the king who earlier had a kind feeling for the reformer of church refused to support him. In 1410 the archbishop imposed a church ban on activity of Hus and his supporters. Then it was caused on an audience to the pontiff. However, the royal couple of Bohemia, university, notable Czechs stood up for the reformer: they sent requests to Vatican to allow the preacher to remain in Prague.
In 1413 the papal bull about the pighead`s excommunication from church was made and you will lock to provide it a shelter and food on pain of refusal to the cities covering the heretic in the right to make church services. It it seemed to Vatican a little, and Prague was declared by the city excommunicated.
Then John Hus, having left the capital, went to biennial wanderings across the Southern and the Western Czech Republic, having written during this time the treatise “ About " church;. In it the organization of Catholic church and its orders were criticized, objections against special position of the Pope, sale of indulgences, communions of laymen by one bread whereas priests at the same time received also wine contained.
In 1414 the rebellious preacher was called to the German city of Konstants on a church cathedral. The Roman emperor Sigismund I Lyuksemburgsky who had the brother to the king Wenceslas gave it safety guarantees in the form of the charter of immunity and maintenance from several noblemen. Nevertheless, Ya. Hus did not reach a final destination, and instead there was in a dungeon Gotliben.
In more than two months it was brought to Konstants. Participants of meeting ordered to sign to the defendant the text of renunciation of those theses of the doctrine which will count heretical, otherwise, according to a sentence, Hus was waited by a fire. The unshakable preacher declared that he will not renounce. And the fire was already ready … Having ascended to it, he started singing: “ Jesus, the Son Davidov, pardon me “. And on the same day ashes of the reformer were thrown out in waters of Rhine.
It happened on July 6, 1415. Together with it to fire also the Bible in author`s translation went to Czech. What was it so dangerous by? The Scripture in the native language removed control of the Roman and German curia of local church service which representatives often did not know Czech, and through it weakened foreign influence because opened doors in theology, science and culture to local population. And it also had an opportunity to compare resolutions of the Roman church to the primary source.
The reformer John Hus made such contribution to development of the Czech literary language that it is difficult to overestimate: he suggested to use the diacritical badges (hyphens and points) helping recognition of the correct pronunciation of letters over letters. And reform of national spelling became unstoppable: it became easier to read texts, and it caused distribution of literacy in the people.
The message about John Hus`s burning on a fire flew about the Czech Republic and caused deep indignation. Did not pass also two months after execution as in Prague gathered about five hundred representatives of the notable families which signed a protest to the Cathedral. And the poor began to gather spontaneously in backwoods, leaving settlements.
So the wars for national independence of the Czech Republic which received the name of hussite began. One-eyed Jan Zhizhka from Trotsnov led the people. In its army constructed by the principle of the general family, livelihood was distributed to all equally and everyone, having property, shared with others.
… There passed nearly five centuries, and on the international symposium in Vatican in December, 1999 the Pope John Paul II expressed a deep regret concerning martyrdom of Hus. Then it was created “ hussite commission “ supported that “ Hus`s doctrine can become the bridge between the separated Christian churches “.