Why Sirius did not obey Egyptians? From history of calendars
Egyptians noticed long ago that three major periodic events are made at the same time. This summer solstice, flood of Nile and emergence in a firmament of a bright star Sotis , known to us as Sirius .
Since sons of the chief priestess of god R based the V dynasty of the Egyptian Pharaohs, god personifying a sun became the major for Egyptians. Sirius - a symbol of the goddess Isida, spouse of one more esteemed god - Osiris, the lord of a kingdom of the dead. And what floods of Nile - a source of power and prosperity of Egypt, is known, perhaps, to any school student today.
Having accepted Sotis`s rising for the beginning of year, about 3200 - go years BC the Egyptian priests the first among ancient developed a beautiful and graceful solar calendar. Duration of year was determined in 360 days (as a full corner of 360 degrees). All twelve months had equal duration - 30 days. 30-days month was divided into three decades or five six-day weeks.
Egyptians did not know seasons, habitual for us. They divided the calendar into three four-months agricultural seasons. Akhet - high water time, pert - time of shoots. The third period - drought time.
The harmonous and symmetric calendar not absolutely corresponded to a solar cycle. Therefore in several years year was added five days. In view of the fact that they did not fit into harmonous system of calculation, determined by it the special place after the termination of old year and prior to the beginning of new. These days did not enter in one month and vozdaniye of honors were allocated for commemoration of the dead, for ancestors and repentances.
It would seem, the task is solved. Duration of year is determined quite precisely, several missing hours whether did not calculate, whether just ignored, and began to consider number 365 sacred.
Unfortunately, natural laws do not consider human conventions. How there was absolutely Ancient Egyptian chronology, the bright star Sotis appeared in a firmament in due time, but not in the first day of new year. Each fourth anniversary a divergence between these two dates increased for days.
But something it was resolutely impossible to change. Divine number 365 was not subject to people. Reached that the Pharaohs ascending on the Egyptian throne swore a solemn oath not to change length of calendar year. In 120 Egyptian years Sirius “ lagged behind “ from a calendar for the whole month, for 730 - already for half a year.
The summer came in the winter, the holiday of a harvest was celebrated in days of crops. It is quite inconvenient and impractical, but god Ra did not allow to change sacred number. In 1460 senseless drudgeries the star Sirius at last was to a look of people when it was “ it is necessary “. Whether it is necessary to say what holiday for Egyptians this event turned back. However, the holiday passed, and Sirius again “ fell back into the old ways “.
All Egyptians, even Pharaohs were already convinced of an unacceptable error of the accepted chronology. But the oath sworn when crowning tied by it hands. At last, in 238 B.C. the tsar Ptolomey III Everget decided and suggested to add by every fourth year on one excess day, like modern leap years.
The tsar`s citizens resolutely rejected “ suspicious “ reform. Egyptians, first-ever determined the actual duration of terrestrial year as 365 days and 6 hours, and remained in captivity of traditions, having preferred to suffer inconveniences, but not to contradict " at all; to will of gods “.
Only nearly two centuries later after unfortunate reform of the tsar Ptolomey Julius Caesar entered leap-year into use. By the way, peripetias of a Julian calendar are already known to us.
All the best.