When to give and receive debts? From history of calendars
It is known that the Julian calendar which actually (taking into account all modernizations and modifications) we use to this day is entered into use by the Roman governor Julius Caesar in the 45th year B.C. But Romans were able to consider time and before Caesar`s reform, just used other chronology based as well as Babylon, on a lunar cycle.
This ancient Roman calendar exerted considerable impact on Julian - and, therefore, on our present. Let`s begin with the term “ calendar “. Romans designated months of year calends . But they had one more word closer to modern sounding. Kalendarium - the debt book.
In the same way as current accountants line quarterly and annual reports, Romans repaid and collected debts with emergence in the sky of a thin new moon. Difference only that there was it not quarterly, and monthly.
From the beginning new respectable citizens well were simply obliged to repay calends borrowed that was by all means noted in registration books. Calends gave the name to these books, and they, in turn, defined the name of a calendar.
The beginning of everyone calends was action considerable. Was considered that while grows thin silver serpik, also wellbeing of Romans, welfare and health grows. Lunar growth phases were esteemed, all holidays fell on them. But, as soon as the Moon began to decline, interest in it completely vanished.
Romans combined the beginning of year with the beginning of spring. The first Calinda in honor of god of Mars called martiusy . On the occasion of emergence of the first young sprouts the second Calinda called aprelis . A third - maius , growth. iunius - prosperity, the fourth Calinda got the name . The others were called on serial numbers from which in slightly changed look reached us 7 - y month a september , 8 - y as an oktober , 9 - y a november and 10 - y a desember .
First months was only ten, pleasant round figure. Four of them lasted on 31 days, and 6 - on 30. The eleventh Calinda (January) and the twelfth (February) appeared later, approximately in 700 years BC
As well as any lunar calendar, Roman did not correspond to solar. The difference was compensated in the same way, as everywhere - added in a year excess days from time to time. These days Romans called mertsedoniy. They were 22 or 23, quite enough that “ to issue “ separate month.
But Romans had the same reverent attitude to figure 13, as well as at our contemporaries. It was impossible to assume that year consisted of thirteen calends, and of mertsedoniya included in February , between the 23 and 24 day, extending the last month of year . At least, so was first.
The powerful Roman state is known the bureaucracy. You are familiar at least with one bureaucrat who would not trade on the power? Romans in this plan differed from our contemporaries a little.
The board of pontiffs achieved the right to add mertsedony so that the operating calendar corresponded to seasons. In practice the Supreme priests urged to watch in public interests dates turned a calendar into the original instrument of corruption and enrichment.
Extending the necessary months in due time, swindlers from the power provided “ lawful “ a delay in return of debts to friends and relatives and vice versa - deprived of the long-term credits of the enemies. Sometimes reached frank absurdity, harvested “ in the winter “ and “ in the spring “ celebrated autumn holidays.
The end to excesses of officials was put in 305 BC by the famous politician Gney Flavy. He invented a wall calendar, having for the first time published on a white marble board the list of dates and holidays for the whole year ahead.
Can seem that all absurdities of the Roman calendar occurred because that its basis - the lunar cycle which is not coinciding with solar. But even solar calendars which some people used are not deprived of shortcomings. About sun whims - further.