With darling and in a tent paradise? Dwelling history. Caves of
That the general between a pyramid and jotas - a mastiff?If to think of an origin of the words having, apparently, opposite value can be found
much in common in various spheres of our life. Ability to draw analogies - occupation informative, at least, develops mental capacities. Without them it is possible to live, of course, but nevertheless - the school for some reason exists!
The pyramid, the Ancient Egyptian construction placed as a symbol of longevity and durability on the one-dollar note goes back to the Ancient Greek word “ pyramis “ which designates the wheat flour pie baked in the form of a pyramid. Guessed as the pyramid adjoins from jotas - a mastiff, that is “ hot dog “? It is about pastries, that is cookery, but and here animals - dogs? On the American slang dogs called sausage, at the end of the 19th century added meat of dogs to sausage forcemeat. Here also it turns out that we connected several disciplines at once: architecture, biology, technology of food production, history.
In this sketch I reflect on history of the dwelling and, having used etymology, I draw for myself unexpected conclusions. For me it turned out news that modern wooden houses came from a dugout, and the Russian furnace not the Russian by origin at all … But let`s study one after another.
History of the ancient dwelling inspired me from a school bench. With pleasure I read how primitive people built houses. Of course, they followed an example of fauna.
I thought of philosophy - if it is possible to apply this concept to dumb animals - the process of construction “ individual housing “.
Mammals build nests, holes and other shelters for a reproduction. Sometimes for ensuring security, or perhaps and from aspiration to comfort. If to look at the orangutan who comfortably settled down in the nest arranged to them it is very fancy, it is possible to agree with the assumption - it is convenient and pleasant to fall in a reverie in such den! Also nests of field mice on stalks of cereals look cozy: such straw Koloboks on sticks.
According to ornithologists, some birdies at construction of the dwelling show surprising qualities of bird`s soul. “ On a roof of one house in Argentina couple of stove-setters (the cheerful birds size from a thrush disclosing the Argentina vicinities cheerful, ringing roulades) constructed a nest. Once the female got to a mousetrap, and to it killed paws. Having broken loose, she hardly reached a nest and there died. The male within several days was turned about a nest, mourning the girlfriend, and then disappeared. In two days it appeared accompanied by other female again. They at once turned to work and immured an entrance to an old nest where remains of the died bird lay. On this sarcophagus they built the new dwelling in which safely removed posterity “ (J. Darrell).
And how the situation at us, chelovek is? Speak: the place of the woman at the center. The bedouin having several wives is obliged to provide to each wife a separate tent. It turns out, the statement that it is possible to tie the woman only by means of the center, had the right for existence already in the most ancient times.
the Dwelling number one - a cave
Scientists assumed long ago that the initial centers of appearance of the person on the earth were distributed in the countries with warm climate. Recent researches showed that the homeland of the modern person - the continent not only with “ warm climate “ but even with roast. In the central Africa when the first people appeared, most likely there was no need to fight against a frost, to muffle up in furs and to build yurtas. Our ancestors needed shelter, mainly, from rains, storms, excessive heat, from dangerous animals and from some similar.
On the Earth`s surface powerful exits of layers of limestones were bared. In this breed circulation of underground waters washed away the emptiness or caves lasting sometimes deep into breeds on many kilometers. The first estimated such “ apartments “ animals. By their example people began to use caves under housing. Sometimes the whole childbirth or tribes occupied the courses in caves. So arose “ cave cities “.
Well-known for the whole world “ country of beautiful horses “ - cave Cappadocia in Turkey - impresses. Cascades and terraces of Pamukkale, the fantastic lock put from white as if cotton wool, a limy tufa, became objects of profitable tourism, and until recently there lived people.
The housing in a cave was strong, and in the night from fires at an entrance it was protected from attack of wild animals. Limestone formations and powerful clay sandstones are rather soft. Already in the Stone Age the axe squared, leveled internal walls, the arches and a floor of caves for convenience.
About “ consolidation “ people of the Stone Age did not care how our grandfathers and grandmothers in Soviet period. On the contrary, thanks to softness “ construction material “ at need slightly expanded “ living space “.
Location some of cave settlements was chosen so successfully that the subsequent generations did not leave this housing.
The cave was the holy site, the dying and reviving gods were born in a cave. Monasteries and monasteries used caves from time immemorial. The set of caves remained in Salachike (Crimea) and right there - in Chufut - Calais. Some caves were occupied with rooms of the Uspensky monastery, others - extensive, perfectly processed in a cave - within many centuries were a part hazarsko - the Karaite city of Kyrkor inhabited up to the 18th century.
Near Bakhchisarai on the valley of the river of Kacha the cave city of Kachikalen, with the rooms which were excellently trimmed inside, containing the numerous population of Cimmerians and a brand - Scythians was located. On Hugo - the West from Bakhchisarai there were well-known huge cave cities with stone “ furniture “ colonization times from Hellas. Near Simferopol the cave city of Bakla, once populated with Greeks, is the most important sight of the Crimea. Same, with the housing, in various degree trimmed cave settlements are known to scientists in many places of Turkistan, in east India, Mesopotamia, Syria, Tunisia, Tripoli, the southern parts of the USA, in France (Shampanyi, across Loire and Garonne), Italy, Israel.
Under numerous certificates, cave wanderers lived in natural underground constructions before the beginning of the 20th century. Still in the thirties last century of people lived in caves as there is a lot of - many centuries ago. In Italy census of 1927 specified that in the country there are 37 000 inhabited caves with the population over 100 000 people! In limestones near Sevastopol rooms of the Inkermansky monastery hostel in the twenties were located.
Sevastopol is the ancient underground city keeping century secrets and secrets. From the moment of the basis it was considered as the defensive city and therefore conceals in itself underpasses, caves, labyrinths, air-raid shelters. At the beginning of July, 1942 casemates 35 - y batteries and caves of the cape Chersonese became witnesses of one of the heaviest pages of defense of Sevastopol.
In Chelyabinsk region some Russian “ outcasts “ and presently take refuge in caves. Abroad more comfortable, lit with electricity ancient caves where quite wealthy people not similar to our bums live remained.
The second part of article will tell about “ houses on trees “.
(As illustrations Leah Usmanova`s photo were used.)